Semigroups¶

class sage.categories.semigroups.Semigroups(base_category)

The category of (multiplicative) semigroups.

A semigroup is an associative magma, that is a set endowed with a multiplicative binary operation $$*$$ which is associative (see Wikipedia article Semigroup).

The operation $$*$$ is not required to have a neutral element. A semigroup for which such an element exists is a monoid.

EXAMPLES:

sage: C = Semigroups(); C
Category of semigroups
sage: C.super_categories()
[Category of magmas]
sage: C.all_super_categories()
[Category of semigroups, Category of magmas,
Category of sets, Category of sets with partial maps, Category of objects]
sage: C.axioms()
frozenset(['Associative'])
sage: C.example()
An example of a semigroup: the left zero semigroup


TESTS:

sage: TestSuite(C).run()

class Algebras(category, *args)

TESTS:

sage: TestSuite(Semigroups().Algebras(QQ)).run()
sage: TestSuite(Semigroups().Finite().Algebras(QQ)).run()

class ParentMethods
algebra_generators()

The generators of this algebra, as per MagmaticAlgebras.ParentMethods.algebra_generators().

They correspond to the generators of the semigroup.

EXAMPLES:

sage: A = FiniteSemigroups().example().algebra(ZZ)
sage: A.algebra_generators()
Finite family {0: B['a'], 1: B['b'], 2: B['c'], 3: B['d']}

product_on_basis(g1, g2)

Product, on basis elements, as per MagmaticAlgebras.WithBasis.ParentMethods.product_on_basis().

The product of two basis elements is induced by the product of the corresponding elements of the group.

EXAMPLES:

sage: S = FiniteSemigroups().example(); S
An example of a finite semigroup: the left regular band generated by ('a', 'b', 'c', 'd')
sage: A = S.algebra(QQ)
sage: a,b,c,d = A.algebra_generators()
sage: a * b + b * d * c * d
B['ab'] + B['bdc']

Semigroups.Algebras.extra_super_categories()

Implement the fact that the algebra of a semigroup is indeed a (not necessarily unital) algebra.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Semigroups().Algebras(QQ).extra_super_categories()
[Category of semigroups]
sage: Semigroups().Algebras(QQ).super_categories()
[Category of associative algebras over Rational Field,
Category of magma algebras over Rational Field]

class Semigroups.CartesianProducts(category, *args)

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.covariant_functorial_construction import CovariantConstructionCategory
sage: class FooBars(CovariantConstructionCategory):
...       _functor_category = "FooBars"
sage: Category.FooBars = lambda self: FooBars.category_of(self)
sage: C = FooBars(ModulesWithBasis(ZZ))
sage: C
Category of foo bars of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: C.base_category()
Category of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: latex(C)
\mathbf{FooBars}(\mathbf{ModulesWithBasis}_{\Bold{Z}})
sage: import __main__; __main__.FooBars = FooBars # Fake FooBars being defined in a python module
sage: TestSuite(C).run()

extra_super_categories()

Implement the fact that a cartesian product of semigroups is a semigroup.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Semigroups().CartesianProducts().extra_super_categories()
[Category of semigroups]
sage: Semigroups().CartesianProducts().super_categories()
[Category of semigroups, Category of Cartesian products of magmas]

class Semigroups.ElementMethods
Semigroups.Finite

alias of FiniteSemigroups

class Semigroups.ParentMethods
cayley_graph(side='right', simple=False, elements=None, generators=None, connecting_set=None)

Return the Cayley graph for this finite semigroup.

INPUT:

• side – “left”, “right”, or “twosided”: the side on which the generators act (default:”right”)
• simple – boolean (default:False): if True, returns a simple graph (no loops, no labels, no multiple edges)
• generators – a list, tuple, or family of elements of self (default: self.semigroup_generators())
• connecting_set – alias for generators; deprecated
• elements – a list (or iterable) of elements of self

OUTPUT:

EXAMPLES:

sage: D4 = DihedralGroup(4); D4
Dihedral group of order 8 as a permutation group
sage: G = D4.cayley_graph()
sage: show(G, color_by_label=True, edge_labels=True)
sage: A5 = AlternatingGroup(5); A5
Alternating group of order 5!/2 as a permutation group
sage: G = A5.cayley_graph()
sage: G.show3d(color_by_label=True, edge_size=0.01, edge_size2=0.02, vertex_size=0.03)
sage: G.show3d(vertex_size=0.03, edge_size=0.01, edge_size2=0.02, vertex_colors={(1,1,1):G.vertices()}, bgcolor=(0,0,0), color_by_label=True, xres=700, yres=700, iterations=200) # long time (less than a minute)
sage: G.num_edges()
120

sage: w = WeylGroup(['A',3])
sage: d = w.cayley_graph(); d
Digraph on 24 vertices
sage: d.show3d(color_by_label=True, edge_size=0.01, vertex_size=0.03)


Alternative generators may be specified:

sage: G = A5.cayley_graph(generators=[A5.gens()[0]])
sage: G.num_edges()
60
sage: g=PermutationGroup([(i+1,j+1) for i in range(5) for j in range(5) if j!=i])
sage: g.cayley_graph(generators=[(1,2),(2,3)])
Digraph on 120 vertices


If elements is specified, then only the subgraph induced and those elements is returned. Here we use it to display the Cayley graph of the free monoid truncated on the elements of length at most 3:

sage: M = Monoids().example(); M
An example of a monoid: the free monoid generated by ('a', 'b', 'c', 'd')
sage: elements = [ M.prod(w) for w in sum((list(Words(M.semigroup_generators(),k)) for k in range(4)),[]) ]
sage: G = M.cayley_graph(elements = elements)
sage: G.num_verts(), G.num_edges()
(85, 84)
sage: G.show3d(color_by_label=True, edge_size=0.001, vertex_size=0.01)


We now illustrate the side and simple options on a semigroup:

sage: S = FiniteSemigroups().example(alphabet=('a','b'))
sage: g = S.cayley_graph(simple=True)
sage: g.vertices()
['a', 'ab', 'b', 'ba']
sage: g.edges()
[('a', 'ab', None), ('b', 'ba', None)]

sage: g = S.cayley_graph(side="left", simple=True)
sage: g.vertices()
['a', 'ab', 'b', 'ba']
sage: g.edges()
[('a', 'ba', None), ('ab', 'ba', None), ('b', 'ab', None),
('ba', 'ab', None)]

sage: g = S.cayley_graph(side="twosided", simple=True)
sage: g.vertices()
['a', 'ab', 'b', 'ba']
sage: g.edges()
[('a', 'ab', None), ('a', 'ba', None), ('ab', 'ba', None),
('b', 'ab', None), ('b', 'ba', None), ('ba', 'ab', None)]

sage: g = S.cayley_graph(side="twosided")
sage: g.vertices()
['a', 'ab', 'b', 'ba']
sage: g.edges()
[('a', 'a', (0, 'left')), ('a', 'a', (0, 'right')), ('a', 'ab', (1, 'right')), ('a', 'ba', (1, 'left')), ('ab', 'ab', (0, 'left')), ('ab', 'ab', (0, 'right')), ('ab', 'ab', (1, 'right')), ('ab', 'ba', (1, 'left')), ('b', 'ab', (0, 'left')), ('b', 'b', (1, 'left')), ('b', 'b', (1, 'right')), ('b', 'ba', (0, 'right')), ('ba', 'ab', (0, 'left')), ('ba', 'ba', (0, 'right')), ('ba', 'ba', (1, 'left')), ('ba', 'ba', (1, 'right'))]

sage: s1 = SymmetricGroup(1); s = s1.cayley_graph(); s.vertices()
[()]


TESTS:

sage: SymmetricGroup(2).cayley_graph(side="both")
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: option 'side' must be 'left', 'right' or 'twosided'


Todo

• Add more options for constructing subgraphs of the Cayley graph, handling the standard use cases when exploring large/infinite semigroups (a predicate, generators of an ideal, a maximal length in term of the generators)
• Specify good default layout/plot/latex options in the graph
• Generalize to combinatorial modules with module generators / operators

AUTHORS:

• Bobby Moretti (2007-08-10)
• Robert Miller (2008-05-01): editing
• Nicolas M. Thiery (2008-12): extension to semigroups, side, simple, and elements options, ...
prod(args)

Return the product of the list of elements args inside self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: S = Semigroups().example("free")
sage: S.prod([S('a'), S('b'), S('c')])
'abc'
sage: S.prod([])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
AssertionError: Cannot compute an empty product in a semigroup

class Semigroups.Quotients(category, *args)

TESTS:

sage: from sage.categories.covariant_functorial_construction import CovariantConstructionCategory
sage: class FooBars(CovariantConstructionCategory):
...       _functor_category = "FooBars"
sage: Category.FooBars = lambda self: FooBars.category_of(self)
sage: C = FooBars(ModulesWithBasis(ZZ))
sage: C
Category of foo bars of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: C.base_category()
Category of modules with basis over Integer Ring
sage: latex(C)
\mathbf{FooBars}(\mathbf{ModulesWithBasis}_{\Bold{Z}})
sage: import __main__; __main__.FooBars = FooBars # Fake FooBars being defined in a python module
sage: TestSuite(C).run()

class ParentMethods
semigroup_generators()

Return semigroup generators for self by retracting the semigroup generators of the ambient semigroup.

EXAMPLES:

sage: S = FiniteSemigroups().Quotients().example().semigroup_generators() # todo: not implemented

Semigroups.Quotients.example()

Return an example of quotient of a semigroup, as per Category.example().

EXAMPLES:

sage: Semigroups().Quotients().example()
An example of a (sub)quotient semigroup: a quotient of the left zero semigroup

class Semigroups.Subquotients(category, *args)

The category of subquotient semi-groups.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Semigroups().Subquotients().all_super_categories()
[Category of subquotients of semigroups,
Category of semigroups,
Category of subquotients of magmas,
Category of magmas,
Category of subquotients of sets,
Category of sets,
Category of sets with partial maps,
Category of objects]

[Category of subquotients of semigroups,
Category of semigroups,
Category of subquotients of magmas,
Category of magmas,
Category of subquotients of sets,
Category of sets,
Category of sets with partial maps,
Category of objects]

example()

Returns an example of subquotient of a semigroup, as per Category.example().

EXAMPLES:

sage: Semigroups().Subquotients().example()
An example of a (sub)quotient semigroup: a quotient of the left zero semigroup

Semigroups.Unital

alias of Monoids

Semigroups.example(choice='leftzero', **kwds)

Returns an example of a semigroup, as per Category.example().

INPUT:

• choice – str (default: ‘leftzero’). Can be either ‘leftzero’ for the left zero semigroup, or ‘free’ for the free semigroup.
• **kwds – keyword arguments passed onto the constructor for the chosen semigroup.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Semigroups().example(choice='leftzero')
An example of a semigroup: the left zero semigroup
sage: Semigroups().example(choice='free')
An example of a semigroup: the free semigroup generated by ('a', 'b', 'c', 'd')
sage: Semigroups().example(choice='free', alphabet=('a','b'))
An example of a semigroup: the free semigroup generated by ('a', 'b')


Schemes

Semirngs