Permutations

The Permutations module. Use Permutation? to get information about the Permutation class, and Permutations? to get information about the combinatorial class of permutations.

Warning

This file defined Permutation which depends upon CombinatorialObject despite it being deprecated (see trac ticket #13742). This is dangerous. In particular, the Permutation._left_to_right_multiply_on_right() method (which can be called trough multiplication) disables the input checks (see Permutation()). This should not happen. Do not trust the results.

What does this file define ?

The main part of this file consists in the definition of permutation objects, i.e. the Permutation() method and the Permutation class. Global options for elements of the permutation class can be set through the PermutationOptions() method.

Below are listed all methods and classes defined in this file.

Methods of Permutations objects

left_action_product() Returns the product of self with another permutation, in which the other permutation is applied first.
right_action_product() Returns the product of self with another permutation, in which self is applied first.
size() Returns the size of the permutation self.
cycle_string() Returns the disjoint-cycles representation of self as string.
next() Returns the permutation that follows self in lexicographic order (in the same symmetric group as self).
prev() Returns the permutation that comes directly before self in lexicographic order (in the same symmetric group as self).
to_tableau_by_shape() Returns a tableau of shape shape with the entries in self.
to_cycles() Returns the permutation self as a list of disjoint cycles.
to_permutation_group_element() Returns a PermutationGroupElement equal to self.
signature() Returns the signature of the permutation sef.
is_even() Returns True if the permutation self is even, and False otherwise.
to_matrix() Returns a matrix representing the permutation self.
rank() Returns the rank of self in lexicographic ordering (on the symmetric group containing self).
to_inversion_vector() Returns the inversion vector of a permutation self.
inversions() Returns a list of the inversions of permutation self.
show() Displays the permutation as a drawing.
number_of_inversions() Returns the number of inversions in the permutation self.
noninversions() Returns the k-noninversions in the permutation self.
number_of_noninversions() Returns the number of k-noninversions in the permutation self.
length() Returns the Coxeter length of a permutation self.
inverse() Returns the inverse of a permutation self.
ishift() Returns the i-shift of self.
iswitch() Returns the i-switch of self.
runs() Returns a list of the runs in the permutation self.
longest_increasing_subsequence_length() Returns the length of the longest increasing subsequences of self.
longest_increasing_subsequences() Returns the list of the longest increasing subsequences of self.
cycle_type() Returns the cycle type of self as a partition of len(self).
foata_bijection() Returns the image of the permutation self under the Foata bijection \(\phi\).
to_lehmer_code() Returns the Lehmer code of the permutation self.
to_lehmer_cocode() Returns the Lehmer cocode of self.
reduced_word() Returns the reduced word of the permutation self.
reduced_words() Returns a list of the reduced words of the permutation self.
reduced_word_lexmin() Returns a lexicographically minimal reduced word of a permutation self.
fixed_points() Returns a list of the fixed points of the permutation self.
number_of_fixed_points() Returns the number of fixed points of the permutation self.
recoils() Returns the list of the positions of the recoils of the permutation self.
number_of_recoils() Returns the number of recoils of the permutation self.
recoils_composition() Returns the composition corresponding to the recoils of self.
descents() Returns the list of the descents of the permutation self.
idescents() Returns a list of the idescents of self.
idescents_signature() Returns the list obtained by mapping each position in self to \(-1\) if it is an idescent and \(1\) if it is not an idescent.
number_of_descents() Returns the number of descents of the permutation self.
number_of_idescents() Returns the number of idescents of the permutation self.
descents_composition() Returns the composition corresponding to the descents of self.
descent_polynomial() Returns the descent polynomial of the permutation self.
major_index() Returns the major index of the permutation self.
imajor_index() Returns the inverse major index of the permutation self.
to_major_code() Returns the major code of the permutation self.
peaks() Returns a list of the peaks of the permutation self.
number_of_peaks() Returns the number of peaks of the permutation self.
saliances() Returns a list of the saliances of the permutation self.
number_of_saliances() Returns the number of saliances of the permutation self.
bruhat_lequal() Returns True if self is less or equal to p2 in the Bruhat order.
weak_excedences() Returns all the numbers self[i] such that self[i] >= i+1.
bruhat_inversions() Returns the list of inversions of self such that the application of this inversion to self decrements its number of inversions.
bruhat_inversions_iterator() Returns an iterator over Bruhat inversions of self.
bruhat_succ() Returns a list of the permutations covering self in the Bruhat order.
bruhat_succ_iterator() An iterator for the permutations covering self in the Bruhat order.
bruhat_pred() Returns a list of the permutations covered by self in the Bruhat order.
bruhat_pred_iterator() An iterator for the permutations covered by self in the Bruhat order.
bruhat_smaller() Returns the combinatorial class of permutations smaller than or equal to self in the Bruhat order.
bruhat_greater() Returns the combinatorial class of permutations greater than or equal to self in the Bruhat order.
permutohedron_lequal() Returns True if self is less or equal to p2 in the permutohedron order.
permutohedron_succ() Returns a list of the permutations covering self in the permutohedron order.
permutohedron_pred() Returns a list of the permutations covered by self in the permutohedron order.
permutohedron_smaller() Returns a list of permutations smaller than or equal to self in the permutohedron order.
permutohedron_greater() Returns a list of permutations greater than or equal to self in the permutohedron order.
right_permutohedron_interval_iterator() Returns an iterator over permutations in an interval of the permutohedron order.
right_permutohedron_interval() Returns a list of permutations in an interval of the permutohedron order.
has_pattern() Tests whether the permutation self matches the pattern.
avoids() Tests whether the permutation self avoids the pattern.
pattern_positions() Returns the list of positions where the pattern patt appears in self.
reverse() Returns the permutation obtained by reversing the 1-line notation of self.
complement() Returns the complement of the permutation which is obtained by replacing each value \(x\) in the 1-line notation of self with \(n - x + 1\).
permutation_poset() Returns the permutation poset of self.
dict() Returns a dictionary corresponding to the permutation self.
action() Returns the action of the permutation self on a list.
robinson_schensted() Returns the pair of standard tableaux obtained by running the Robinson-Schensted Algorithm on self.
left_tableau() Returns the left standard tableau after performing the RSK algorithm.
right_tableau() Returns the right standard tableau after performing the RSK algorithm.
RS_partition() Returns the shape of the tableaux obtained by the RSK algorithm.
remove_extra_fixed_points() Returns the permutation obtained by removing any fixed points at the end of self.
hyperoctahedral_double_coset_type() Returns the coset-type of self as a partition.
binary_search_tree_shape() Returns the shape of the binary search tree of self (a non labelled binary tree).
shifted_concatenation() Returns the right (or left) shifted concatenation of self with a permutation other.
shifted_shuffle() Returns the shifted shuffle of self with a permutation other.

Other classes defined in this file

Permutations  
Permutations_nk  
Permutations_mset  
Permutations_set  
Permutations_msetk  
Permutations_setk  
Arrangements  
Arrangements_msetk  
Arrangements_setk  
StandardPermutations_all  
StandardPermutations_n  
StandardPermutations_descents  
StandardPermutations_recoilsfiner  
StandardPermutations_recoilsfatter  
StandardPermutations_recoils  
StandardPermutations_bruhat_smaller  
StandardPermutations_bruhat_greater  
CyclicPermutations  
CyclicPermutationsOfPartition  
StandardPermutations_avoiding_12  
StandardPermutations_avoiding_21  
StandardPermutations_avoiding_132  
StandardPermutations_avoiding_123  
StandardPermutations_avoiding_321  
StandardPermutations_avoiding_231  
StandardPermutations_avoiding_312  
StandardPermutations_avoiding_213  
StandardPermutations_avoiding_generic  
PatternAvoider  

Functions defined in this file

from_major_code() Returns the permutation corresponding to major code mc.
from_permutation_group_element() Returns a Permutation give a PermutationGroupElement pge.
from_rank() Returns the permutation with the specified lexicographic rank.
from_inversion_vector() Returns the permutation corresponding to inversion vector iv.
from_cycles() Returns the permutation with given disjoint-cycle representation cycles.
from_lehmer_code() Returns the permutation with Lehmer code lehmer.
from_reduced_word() Returns the permutation corresponding to the reduced word rw.
robinson_schensted_inverse() Returns the permutation corresponding to the pair of tableaux \((p,q)\).
bistochastic_as_sum_of_permutations() Returns a given bistochastic matrix as a nonnegative linear combination of permutations.
descents_composition_list() Returns a list of all the permutations in a given descent class (i. e., having a given descents composition).
descents_composition_first() Returns the smallest element of a descent class.
descents_composition_last() Returns the largest element of a descent class.
bruhat_lequal() Returns True if p1 is less or equal to p2 in the Bruhat order.
permutohedron_lequal() Returns True if p1 is less or equal to p2 in the permutohedron order.
to_standard() Returns a standard permutation corresponding to the permutation self.

AUTHORS:

  • Mike Hansen
  • Dan Drake (2008-04-07): allow Permutation() to take lists of tuples
  • Sebastien Labbe (2009-03-17): added robinson_schensted_inverse
  • Travis Scrimshaw:
    • (2012-08-16): to_standard() no longer modifies input
    • (2013-01-19): Removed RSK implementation and moved to rsk.
    • (2013-07-13): Removed CombinatorialClass and moved permutations to the category framework.
  • Darij Grinberg (2013-09-07): added methods; ameliorated trac ticket #14885 by exposing and documenting methods for global-independent multiplication.

Classes and methods

class sage.combinat.permutation.Arrangements

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

An arrangement of mset is an ordered selection without repetitions and is represented by a list that contains only elements from mset, but maybe in a different order.

Arrangements returns the combinatorial class of arrangements of the multiset mset that contain k elements.

EXAMPLES:

sage: mset = [1,1,2,3,4,4,5]
sage: Arrangements(mset,2).list()
[[1, 1],
 [1, 2],
 [1, 3],
 [1, 4],
 [1, 5],
 [2, 1],
 [2, 3],
 [2, 4],
 [2, 5],
 [3, 1],
 [3, 2],
 [3, 4],
 [3, 5],
 [4, 1],
 [4, 2],
 [4, 3],
 [4, 4],
 [4, 5],
 [5, 1],
 [5, 2],
 [5, 3],
 [5, 4]]
 sage: Arrangements(mset,2).cardinality()
 22
 sage: Arrangements( ["c","a","t"], 2 ).list()
 [['c', 'a'], ['c', 't'], ['a', 'c'], ['a', 't'], ['t', 'c'], ['t', 'a']]
 sage: Arrangements( ["c","a","t"], 3 ).list()
 [['c', 'a', 't'],
  ['c', 't', 'a'],
  ['a', 'c', 't'],
  ['a', 't', 'c'],
  ['t', 'c', 'a'],
  ['t', 'a', 'c']]
cardinality()

Return the cardinality of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: A = Arrangements([1,1,2,3,4,4,5], 2)
sage: A.cardinality()
22
class sage.combinat.permutation.Arrangements_msetk(mset, k)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Arrangements, sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations_msetk

Arrangements of length \(k\) of a multiset \(M\).

class sage.combinat.permutation.Arrangements_setk(s, k)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Arrangements, sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations_setk

Arrangements of length \(k\) of a set \(S\).

class sage.combinat.permutation.CyclicPermutations(mset)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations_mset

Return the class of all cyclic permutations of mset in cycle notation. These are the same as necklaces.

INPUT:

  • mset – A multiset

EXAMPLES:

sage: CyclicPermutations(range(4)).list()
[[0, 1, 2, 3],
 [0, 1, 3, 2],
 [0, 2, 1, 3],
 [0, 2, 3, 1],
 [0, 3, 1, 2],
 [0, 3, 2, 1]]
sage: CyclicPermutations([1,1,1]).list()
[[1, 1, 1]]
iterator(distinct=False)

EXAMPLES:

sage: CyclicPermutations(range(4)).list() # indirect doctest
[[0, 1, 2, 3],
 [0, 1, 3, 2],
 [0, 2, 1, 3],
 [0, 2, 3, 1],
 [0, 3, 1, 2],
 [0, 3, 2, 1]]
 sage: CyclicPermutations([1,1,1]).list()
 [[1, 1, 1]]
 sage: CyclicPermutations([1,1,1]).list(distinct=True)
 [[1, 1, 1], [1, 1, 1]]
list(distinct=False)

EXAMPLES:

sage: CyclicPermutations(range(4)).list()
[[0, 1, 2, 3],
 [0, 1, 3, 2],
 [0, 2, 1, 3],
 [0, 2, 3, 1],
 [0, 3, 1, 2],
 [0, 3, 2, 1]]
class sage.combinat.permutation.CyclicPermutationsOfPartition(partition)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

Combinations of cyclic permutations of each cell of a given partition.

This is the same as a Cartesian product of necklaces.

EXAMPLES:

sage: CyclicPermutationsOfPartition([[1,2,3,4],[5,6,7]]).list()
[[[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7]],
 [[1, 2, 4, 3], [5, 6, 7]],
 [[1, 3, 2, 4], [5, 6, 7]],
 [[1, 3, 4, 2], [5, 6, 7]],
 [[1, 4, 2, 3], [5, 6, 7]],
 [[1, 4, 3, 2], [5, 6, 7]],
 [[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 7, 6]],
 [[1, 2, 4, 3], [5, 7, 6]],
 [[1, 3, 2, 4], [5, 7, 6]],
 [[1, 3, 4, 2], [5, 7, 6]],
 [[1, 4, 2, 3], [5, 7, 6]],
 [[1, 4, 3, 2], [5, 7, 6]]]
sage: CyclicPermutationsOfPartition([[1,2,3,4],[4,4,4]]).list()
[[[1, 2, 3, 4], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 2, 4, 3], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 3, 2, 4], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 3, 4, 2], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 4, 2, 3], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 4, 3, 2], [4, 4, 4]]]
sage: CyclicPermutationsOfPartition([[1,2,3],[4,4,4]]).list()
[[[1, 2, 3], [4, 4, 4]], [[1, 3, 2], [4, 4, 4]]]
sage: CyclicPermutationsOfPartition([[1,2,3],[4,4,4]]).list(distinct=True)
[[[1, 2, 3], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 3, 2], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 2, 3], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 3, 2], [4, 4, 4]]]
class Element

Bases: sage.structure.list_clone.ClonableArray

A cyclic permutation of a partition.

check()

Check that self is a valid element.

EXAMPLES:

sage: CP = CyclicPermutationsOfPartition([[1,2,3,4],[5,6,7]])
sage: elt = CP[0]
sage: elt.check()
CyclicPermutationsOfPartition.iterator(distinct=False)

AUTHORS:

  • Robert Miller

EXAMPLES:

sage: CyclicPermutationsOfPartition([[1,2,3,4],[5,6,7]]).list() # indirect doctest
[[[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7]],
 [[1, 2, 4, 3], [5, 6, 7]],
 [[1, 3, 2, 4], [5, 6, 7]],
 [[1, 3, 4, 2], [5, 6, 7]],
 [[1, 4, 2, 3], [5, 6, 7]],
 [[1, 4, 3, 2], [5, 6, 7]],
 [[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 7, 6]],
 [[1, 2, 4, 3], [5, 7, 6]],
 [[1, 3, 2, 4], [5, 7, 6]],
 [[1, 3, 4, 2], [5, 7, 6]],
 [[1, 4, 2, 3], [5, 7, 6]],
 [[1, 4, 3, 2], [5, 7, 6]]]
sage: CyclicPermutationsOfPartition([[1,2,3,4],[4,4,4]]).list()
[[[1, 2, 3, 4], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 2, 4, 3], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 3, 2, 4], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 3, 4, 2], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 4, 2, 3], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 4, 3, 2], [4, 4, 4]]]
sage: CyclicPermutationsOfPartition([[1,2,3],[4,4,4]]).list()
[[[1, 2, 3], [4, 4, 4]], [[1, 3, 2], [4, 4, 4]]]
sage: CyclicPermutationsOfPartition([[1,2,3],[4,4,4]]).list(distinct=True)
[[[1, 2, 3], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 3, 2], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 2, 3], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 3, 2], [4, 4, 4]]]
CyclicPermutationsOfPartition.list(distinct=False)

EXAMPLES:

sage: CyclicPermutationsOfPartition([[1,2,3],[4,4,4]]).list()
[[[1, 2, 3], [4, 4, 4]], [[1, 3, 2], [4, 4, 4]]]
sage: CyclicPermutationsOfPartition([[1,2,3],[4,4,4]]).list(distinct=True)
[[[1, 2, 3], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 3, 2], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 2, 3], [4, 4, 4]],
 [[1, 3, 2], [4, 4, 4]]]
sage.combinat.permutation.CyclicPermutationsOfPartition_partition(partition)

EXAMPLES:

sage: sage.combinat.permutation.CyclicPermutationsOfPartition_partition([[1,2,3,4],[5,6,7]])
doctest:...: DeprecationWarning: this class is deprecated. Use sage.combinat.permutation.CyclicPermutationsOfPartition instead
See http://trac.sagemath.org/14772 for details.
Cyclic permutations of partition [[1, 2, 3, 4], [5, 6, 7]]
sage.combinat.permutation.CyclicPermutations_mset(partition)

EXAMPLES:

sage: sage.combinat.permutation.CyclicPermutations_mset(range(4))
doctest:...: DeprecationWarning: this class is deprecated. Use sage.combinat.permutation.CyclicPermutations instead
See http://trac.sagemath.org/14772 for details.
Cyclic permutations of [0, 1, 2, 3]
class sage.combinat.permutation.PatternAvoider(parent, patterns)

Bases: sage.combinat.backtrack.GenericBacktracker

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.combinat.permutation import PatternAvoider
sage: P = Permutations(4)
sage: p = PatternAvoider(P, [[1,2,3]])
sage: loads(dumps(p))
<sage.combinat.permutation.PatternAvoider object at 0x...>
class sage.combinat.permutation.Permutation(parent, l, check_input=True)

Bases: sage.combinat.combinat.CombinatorialObject, sage.structure.element.Element

A permutation.

Converts l to a permutation on \(\{1, 2, \ldots, n\}\).

INPUT:

  • l – Can be any one of the following:

    • an instance of Permutation,
    • list of integers, viewed as one-line permutation notation. The construction checks that you give an acceptable entry. To avoid the check, use the check_input option.
    • string, expressing the permutation in cycle notation.
    • list of tuples of integers, expressing the permutation in cycle notation.
    • a PermutationGroupElement
    • a pair of two standard tableaux of the same shape. This yields the permutation obtained from the pair using the inverse of the Robinson-Schensted algorithm.
  • check_input (boolean) – whether to check that input is correct. Slows

    the function down, but ensures that nothing bad happens. This is set to True by default.

Warning

Since trac ticket #13742 the input is checked for correctness : it is not accepted unless actually is a permutation on \(\{1, \ldots, n\}\). It means that some Permutation() objects cannot be created anymore without setting check_input = False, as there is no certainty that its functions can handle them, and this should be fixed in a much better way ASAP (the functions should be rewritten to handle those cases, and new tests be added).

Warning

There are two possible conventions for multiplying permutations, and the one currently enabled in Sage by default is the one which has \((pq)(i) = q(p(i))\) for any permutations \(p \in S_n\) and \(q \in S_n\) and any \(1 \leq i \leq n\). (This equation looks less strange when the action of permutations on numbers is written from the right: then it takes the form \(i^{pq} = (i^p)^q\), which is an associativity law). There is an alternative convention, which has \((pq)(i) = p(q(i))\) instead. The conventions can be switched at runtime using sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations.global_options(). It is best for code not to rely on this setting being set to a particular standard, but rather use the methods left_action_product() and right_action_product() for multiplying permutations (these methods don’t depend on the setting). See trac ticket #14885 for more details.

Note

The bruhat* methods refer to the strong Bruhat order. To use the weak Bruhat order, look under permutohedron*.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,1])
[2, 1]
sage: Permutation([2, 1, 4, 5, 3])
[2, 1, 4, 5, 3]
sage: Permutation('(1,2)')
[2, 1]
sage: Permutation('(1,2)(3,4,5)')
[2, 1, 4, 5, 3]
sage: Permutation( ((1,2),(3,4,5)) )
[2, 1, 4, 5, 3]
sage: Permutation( [(1,2),(3,4,5)] )
[2, 1, 4, 5, 3]
sage: Permutation( ((1,2)) )
[2, 1]
sage: Permutation( (1,2) )
[2, 1]
sage: Permutation( ((1,2),) )
[2, 1]
sage: Permutation( ((1,),) )
[1]
sage: Permutation( (1,) )
[1]
sage: Permutation( () )
[]
sage: Permutation( ((),) )
[]
sage: p = Permutation((1, 2, 5)); p
[2, 5, 3, 4, 1]
sage: type(p)
<class 'sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_all_with_category.element_class'>

Construction from a string in cycle notation:

sage: p = Permutation( '(4,5)' ); p
[1, 2, 3, 5, 4]

The size of the permutation is the maximum integer appearing; add a 1-cycle to increase this:

sage: p2 = Permutation( '(4,5)(10)' ); p2
[1, 2, 3, 5, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10]
sage: len(p); len(p2)
5
10

We construct a Permutation from a PermutationGroupElement:

sage: g = PermutationGroupElement([2,1,3])
sage: Permutation(g)
[2, 1, 3]

From a pair of tableaux of the same shape. This uses the inverse of the Robinson-Schensted algorithm:

sage: p = [[1, 4, 7], [2, 5], [3], [6]]
sage: q = [[1, 2, 5], [3, 6], [4], [7]]
sage: P = Tableau(p)
sage: Q = Tableau(q)
sage: Permutation( (p, q) )
[3, 6, 5, 2, 7, 4, 1]
sage: Permutation( [p, q] )
[3, 6, 5, 2, 7, 4, 1]
sage: Permutation( (P, Q) )
[3, 6, 5, 2, 7, 4, 1]
sage: Permutation( [P, Q] )
[3, 6, 5, 2, 7, 4, 1]

TESTS:

sage: Permutation([()])
[]
sage: Permutation('()')
[]
sage: Permutation(())
[]
sage: Permutation( [1] )
[1]

From a pair of empty tableaux

sage: Permutation( ([], []) )
[]
sage: Permutation( [[], []] )
[]
RS_partition(*args, **kwds)

Return the shape of the tableaux obtained by applying the RSK algorithm to self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).RS_partition()
[2, 1, 1]
action(a)

Return the action of the permutation self on a list a.

The action of a permutation \(p \in S_n\) on an \(n\)-element list \((a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n)\) is defined to be \((a_{p(1)}, a_{p(2)}, \ldots, a_{p(n)})\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([2,1,3])
sage: a = range(3)
sage: p.action(a)
[1, 0, 2]
sage: b = [1,2,3,4]
sage: p.action(b)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: len(a) must equal len(self)

sage: q = Permutation([2,3,1])
sage: a = range(3)
sage: q.action(a)
[1, 2, 0]
avoids(patt)

Test whether the permutation self avoids the pattern patt.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([6,2,5,4,3,1]).avoids([4,2,3,1])
False
sage: Permutation([6,1,2,5,4,3]).avoids([4,2,3,1])
True
sage: Permutation([6,1,2,5,4,3]).avoids([3,4,1,2])
True
binary_search_tree(left_to_right=True)

Return the binary search tree associated to self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).binary_search_tree()
1[., 4[3[2[., .], .], .]]
sage: Permutation([4,1,3,2]).binary_search_tree()
4[1[., 3[2[., .], .]], .]

By passing the option left_to_right=False one can have the insertion going from right to left:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).binary_search_tree(False)
2[1[., .], 3[., 4[., .]]]
sage: Permutation([4,1,3,2]).binary_search_tree(False)
2[1[., .], 3[., 4[., .]]]

TESTS:

sage: Permutation([]).binary_search_tree()
.
binary_search_tree_shape(*args, **kwds)

Returns the shape of the binary search tree of the permutation (a non labelled binary tree).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).binary_search_tree_shape()
[., [[[., .], .], .]]
sage: Permutation([4,1,3,2]).binary_search_tree_shape()
[[., [[., .], .]], .]

By passing the option left_to_right=False one can have the insertion going from right to left:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).binary_search_tree_shape(False)
[[., .], [., [., .]]]
sage: Permutation([4,1,3,2]).binary_search_tree_shape(False)
[[., .], [., [., .]]]
bruhat_greater()

Returns the combinatorial class of permutations greater than or equal to self in the Bruhat order (on the symmetric group containing self).

See bruhat_lequal() for the definition of the Bruhat order.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([4,1,2,3]).bruhat_greater().list()
[[4, 1, 2, 3],
 [4, 1, 3, 2],
 [4, 2, 1, 3],
 [4, 2, 3, 1],
 [4, 3, 1, 2],
 [4, 3, 2, 1]]
bruhat_inversions()

Return the list of inversions of self such that the application of this inversion to self decreases its number of inversions by exactly 1.

Equivalently, it returns the list of pairs \((i,j)\) such that \(i < j\), such that \(p(i) > p(j)\) and such that there exists no \(k\) (strictly) between \(i\) and \(j\) satisfying \(p(i) > p(k) > p(j)\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([5,2,3,4,1]).bruhat_inversions()
[[0, 1], [0, 2], [0, 3], [1, 4], [2, 4], [3, 4]]
sage: Permutation([6,1,4,5,2,3]).bruhat_inversions()
[[0, 1], [0, 2], [0, 3], [2, 4], [2, 5], [3, 4], [3, 5]]
bruhat_inversions_iterator()

Return the iterator for the inversions of self such that the application of this inversion to self decreases its number of inversions by exactly 1.

EXAMPLES:

sage: list(Permutation([5,2,3,4,1]).bruhat_inversions_iterator())
[[0, 1], [0, 2], [0, 3], [1, 4], [2, 4], [3, 4]]
sage: list(Permutation([6,1,4,5,2,3]).bruhat_inversions_iterator())
[[0, 1], [0, 2], [0, 3], [2, 4], [2, 5], [3, 4], [3, 5]]
bruhat_lequal(p2)

Return True if self is less or equal to p2 in the Bruhat order.

The Bruhat order (also called strong Bruhat order or Chevalley order) on the symmetric group \(S_n\) is the partial order on \(S_n\) determined by the following condition: If \(p\) is a permutation, and \(i\) and \(j\) are two indices satisfying \(p(i) > p(j)\) and \(i < j\) (that is, \((i, j)\) is an inversion of \(p\) with \(i < j\)), then \(p \circ (i, j)\) (the permutation obtained by first switching \(i\) with \(j\) and then applying \(p\)) is smaller than \(p\) in the Bruhat order.

One can show that a permutation \(p \in S_n\) is less or equal to a permutation \(q \in S_n\) in the Bruhat order if and only if for every \(i \in \{ 0, 1, \cdots , n \}\) and \(j \in \{ 1, 2, \cdots , n \}\), the number of the elements among \(p(1), p(2), \cdots, p(j)\) that are greater than \(i\) is \(\leq\) to the number of the elements among \(q(1), q(2), \cdots, q(j)\) that are greater than \(i\).

This method assumes that self and p2 are permutations of the same integer \(n\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,4,3,1]).bruhat_lequal(Permutation([3,4,2,1]))
True

sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).bruhat_lequal(Permutation([2,3,1]))
True
sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).bruhat_lequal(Permutation([3,1,2]))
True
sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).bruhat_lequal(Permutation([1,2,3]))
False
sage: Permutation([1,3,2]).bruhat_lequal(Permutation([2,1,3]))
False
sage: Permutation([1,3,2]).bruhat_lequal(Permutation([2,3,1]))
True
sage: Permutation([2,3,1]).bruhat_lequal(Permutation([1,3,2]))
False
sage: sorted( [len([b for b in Permutations(3) if a.bruhat_lequal(b)])
....:          for a in Permutations(3)] )
[1, 2, 2, 4, 4, 6]

sage: Permutation([]).bruhat_lequal(Permutation([]))
True
bruhat_pred()

Return a list of the permutations strictly smaller than self in the Bruhat order (on the symmetric group containing self) such that there is no permutation between one of those and self.

See bruhat_lequal() for the definition of the Bruhat order.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([6,1,4,5,2,3]).bruhat_pred()
[[1, 6, 4, 5, 2, 3],
 [4, 1, 6, 5, 2, 3],
 [5, 1, 4, 6, 2, 3],
 [6, 1, 2, 5, 4, 3],
 [6, 1, 3, 5, 2, 4],
 [6, 1, 4, 2, 5, 3],
 [6, 1, 4, 3, 2, 5]]
bruhat_pred_iterator()

An iterator for the permutations strictly smaller than self in the Bruhat order (on the symmetric group containing self) such that there is no permutation between one of those and self.

See bruhat_lequal() for the definition of the Bruhat order.

EXAMPLES:

sage: [x for x in Permutation([6,1,4,5,2,3]).bruhat_pred_iterator()]
[[1, 6, 4, 5, 2, 3],
 [4, 1, 6, 5, 2, 3],
 [5, 1, 4, 6, 2, 3],
 [6, 1, 2, 5, 4, 3],
 [6, 1, 3, 5, 2, 4],
 [6, 1, 4, 2, 5, 3],
 [6, 1, 4, 3, 2, 5]]
bruhat_smaller()

Return the combinatorial class of permutations smaller than or equal to self in the Bruhat order (on the symmetric group containing self).

See bruhat_lequal() for the definition of the Bruhat order.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([4,1,2,3]).bruhat_smaller().list()
[[1, 2, 3, 4],
 [1, 2, 4, 3],
 [1, 3, 2, 4],
 [1, 4, 2, 3],
 [2, 1, 3, 4],
 [2, 1, 4, 3],
 [3, 1, 2, 4],
 [4, 1, 2, 3]]
bruhat_succ()

Return a list of the permutations strictly greater than self in the Bruhat order (on the symmetric group containing self) such that there is no permutation between one of those and self.

See bruhat_lequal() for the definition of the Bruhat order.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([6,1,4,5,2,3]).bruhat_succ()
[[6, 4, 1, 5, 2, 3],
 [6, 2, 4, 5, 1, 3],
 [6, 1, 5, 4, 2, 3],
 [6, 1, 4, 5, 3, 2]]
bruhat_succ_iterator()

An iterator for the permutations that are strictly greater than self in the Bruhat order (on the symmetric group containing self) such that there is no permutation between one of those and self.

See bruhat_lequal() for the definition of the Bruhat order.

EXAMPLES:

sage: [x for x in Permutation([6,1,4,5,2,3]).bruhat_succ_iterator()]
[[6, 4, 1, 5, 2, 3],
 [6, 2, 4, 5, 1, 3],
 [6, 1, 5, 4, 2, 3],
 [6, 1, 4, 5, 3, 2]]
complement(*args, **kwds)

Return the complement of the permutation self.

The complement of a permutation \(w \in S_n\) is defined as the permutation in \(S_n\) sending each \(i\) to \(n + 1 - w(i)\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,2,3]).complement()
[3, 2, 1]
sage: Permutation([1, 3, 2]).complement()
[3, 1, 2]
cycle_string(singletons=False)

Returns a string of the permutation in cycle notation.

If singletons=True, it includes 1-cycles in the string.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,2,3]).cycle_string()
'()'
sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).cycle_string()
'(1,2)'
sage: Permutation([2,3,1]).cycle_string()
'(1,2,3)'
sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).cycle_string(singletons=True)
'(1,2)(3)'
cycle_tuples(singletons=True)

Return the permutation self as a list of disjoint cycles.

If singletons=False is given, the list does not contain the singleton cycles.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,1,3,4]).to_cycles()
[(1, 2), (3,), (4,)]
sage: Permutation([2,1,3,4]).to_cycles(singletons=False)
[(1, 2)]

The algorithm is of complexity \(O(n)\) where \(n\) is the size of the given permutation.

TESTS:

sage: from sage.combinat.permutation import from_cycles
sage: for n in range(1,6):
....:    for p in Permutations(n):
....:       if from_cycles(n, p.to_cycles()) != p:
....:          print "There is a problem with ",p
....:          break
sage: size = 10000
sage: sample = (Permutations(size).random_element() for i in range(5))
sage: all(from_cycles(size, p.to_cycles()) == p for p in sample)
True

Note: there is an alternative implementation called _to_cycle_set which could be slightly (10%) faster for some input (typically for permutations of size in the range [100, 10000]). You can run the following benchmarks. For small permutations:

sage: for size in range(9): # not tested
....:  print size
....:  lp = Permutations(size).list()
....:  timeit('[p.to_cycles(False) for p in lp]')
....:  timeit('[p._to_cycles_set(False) for p in lp]')
....:  timeit('[p._to_cycles_list(False) for p in lp]')
....:  timeit('[p._to_cycles_orig(False) for p in lp]')

and larger ones:

sage: for size in [10, 20, 50, 75, 100, 200, 500, 1000, # not tested
....:       2000, 5000, 10000, 15000, 20000, 30000,
....:       50000, 80000, 100000]:
....:    print(size)
....:    lp = [Permutations(size).random_element() for i in range(20)]
....:    timeit("[p.to_cycles() for p in lp]")
....:    timeit("[p._to_cycles_set() for p in lp]")
....:    timeit("[p._to_cycles_list() for p in lp]") # not tested
cycle_type()

Return a partition of len(self) corresponding to the cycle type of self. This is a non-increasing sequence of the cycle lengths of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3,1,2,4]).cycle_type()
[3, 1]
descent_polynomial()

Return the descent polynomial of the permutation self.

The descent polynomial of a permutation \(p\) is the product of all the z[p[i]] where i ranges over the descents of p.

A descent of a permutation p is an integer i such that p[i] > p[i+1]. Here, Python’s indexing convention is used, so p[i] means \(p(i+1)\).

REFERENCES:

[GarStan1984]A. M. Garsia, Dennis Stanton, Group actions on Stanley-Reisner rings and invariants of permutation groups, Adv. in Math. 51 (1984), 107-201. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0001870884900057

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).descent_polynomial()
z1
sage: Permutation([4,3,2,1]).descent_polynomial()
z1*z2^2*z3^3

Todo

This docstring needs to be fixed. First, the definition does not match the implementation (or the examples). Second, this doesn’t seem to be defined in [GarStan1984] (the descent monomial in their (7.23) is different).

descents(final_descent=False)

Return the list of the descents of self.

A descent of a permutation p is an integer i such that p[i] > p[i+1]. Here, Python’s indexing convention is used, so p[i] means \(p(i+1)\).

With the final_descent option, the last position of a non-empty permutation is also considered as a descent.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3,1,2]).descents()
[0]
sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).descents()
[1, 2]
sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).descents(final_descent=True)
[1, 2, 3]
descents_composition(*args, **kwds)

Return the descent composition of self.

The descent composition of a permutation \(p \in S_n\) is defined as the composition of \(n\) whose descent set equals the descent set of \(p\). Here, the descent set of \(p\) is defined as the set of all \(i \in \{ 1, 2, \ldots, n-1 \}\) satisfying \(p(i) > p(i+1)\) (note that this differs from the output of the descents() method, since the latter uses Python’s indexing which starts at \(0\) instead of \(1\)). The descent set of a composition \(c = (i_1, i_2, \ldots, i_k)\) is defined as the set \(\{ i_1, i_1 + i_2, i_1 + i_2 + i_3, \ldots, i_1 + i_2 + \cdots + i_{k-1} \}\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,3,2,4]).descents_composition()
[2, 2]
sage: Permutation([4,1,6,7,2,3,8,5]).descents_composition()
[1, 3, 3, 1]
sage: Permutation([]).descents_composition()
[]
dict()

Returns a dictionary corresponding to the permutation.

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([2,1,3])
sage: d = p.dict()
sage: d[1]
2
sage: d[2]
1
sage: d[3]
3
fixed_points()

Return a list of the fixed points of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,3,2,4]).fixed_points()
[1, 4]
sage: Permutation([1,2,3,4]).fixed_points()
[1, 2, 3, 4]
foata_bijection(*args, **kwds)

Return the image of the permutation self under the Foata bijection \(\phi\).

The bijection shows that \(\mathrm{maj}\) and \(\mathrm{inv}\) are equidistributed: if \(\phi(P) = Q\), then \(\mathrm{maj}(P) = \mathrm{inv}(Q)\).

The Foata bijection \(\phi\) is a bijection on the set of words with no two equal letters. It can be defined by induction on the size of the word: Given a word \(w_1 w_2 \cdots w_n\), start with \(\phi(w_1) = w_1\). At the \(i\)-th step, if \(\phi(w_1 w_2 \cdots w_i) = v_1 v_2 \cdots v_i\), we define \(\phi(w_1 w_2 \cdots w_i w_{i+1})\) by placing \(w_{i+1}\) on the end of the word \(v_1 v_2 \cdots v_i\) and breaking the word up into blocks as follows. If \(w_{i+1} > v_i\), place a vertical line to the right of each \(v_k\) for which \(w_{i+1} > v_k\). Otherwise, if \(w_{i+1} < v_i\), place a vertical line to the right of each \(v_k\) for which \(w_{i+1} < v_k\). In either case, place a vertical line at the start of the word as well. Now, within each block between vertical lines, cyclically shift the entries one place to the right.

For instance, to compute \(\phi([1,4,2,5,3])\), the sequence of words is

  • \(1\),
  • \(|1|4 \to 14\),
  • \(|14|2 \to 412\),
  • \(|4|1|2|5 \to 4125\),
  • \(|4|125|3 \to 45123\).

So \(\phi([1,4,2,5,3]) = [4,5,1,2,3]\).

See section 2 of [FoSc78].

REFERENCES:

[FoSc78](1, 2) Dominique Foata, Marcel-Paul Schuetzenberger. Major Index and Inversion Number of Permutations. Mathematische Nachrichten, volume 83, Issue 1, pages 143-159, 1978. http://igm.univ-mlv.fr/~berstel/Mps/Travaux/A/1978-3MajorIndexMathNachr.pdf

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,2,4,3]).foata_bijection()
[4, 1, 2, 3]
sage: Permutation([2,5,1,3,4]).foata_bijection()
[2, 1, 3, 5, 4]

sage: P = Permutation([2,5,1,3,4])
sage: P.major_index() == P.foata_bijection().number_of_inversions()
True

sage: all( P.major_index() == P.foata_bijection().number_of_inversions()
....:      for P in Permutations(4) )
True

The example from [FoSc78]:

sage: Permutation([7,4,9,2,6,1,5,8,3]).foata_bijection()
[4, 7, 2, 6, 1, 9, 5, 8, 3]

Border cases:

sage: Permutation([]).foata_bijection()
[]
sage: Permutation([1]).foata_bijection()
[1]
has_pattern(patt)

Test whether the permutation self contains the pattern patt.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3,5,1,4,6,2]).has_pattern([1,3,2])
True
hyperoctahedral_double_coset_type()

Return the coset-type of self as a partition.

self must be a permutation of even size \(2n\). The coset-type determines the double class of the permutation, that is its image in \(H_n \backslash S_{2n} / H_n\), where \(H_n\) is the \(n\)-th hyperoctahedral group.

The coset-type is determined as follows. Consider the perfect matching \(\{\{1,2\},\{3,4\},\dots,\{2n-1,2n\}\}\) and its image by self, and draw them simultaneously as edges of a graph whose vertices are labeled by \(1,2,\dots,2n\). The coset-type is the ordered sequence of the semi-lengths of the cycles of this graph (see Chapter VII of [Mcd] for more details, particularly Section VII.2).

EXAMPLE:

sage: Permutation([3, 4, 6, 1, 5, 7, 2, 8]).hyperoctahedral_double_coset_type()
[3, 1]
sage: all([p.hyperoctahedral_double_coset_type() ==
....:      p.inverse().hyperoctahedral_double_coset_type()
....:       for p in Permutations(4)])
True
sage: Permutation([]).hyperoctahedral_double_coset_type()
[]
sage: Permutation([3,1,2]).hyperoctahedral_double_coset_type()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: [3, 1, 2] is a permutation of odd size and has no coset-type

REFERENCES:

[Mcd]I. G. Macdonald, Symmetric functions and Hall polynomials, Oxford University Press, second edition, 1995.
idescents(final_descent=False)

Return a list of the idescents of self, that is the list of the descents of self‘s inverse.

A descent of a permutation p is an integer i such that p[i] > p[i+1]. Here, Python’s indexing convention is used, so p[i] means \(p(i+1)\).

With the final_descent option, the last position of a non-empty permutation is also considered as a descent.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,3,1]).idescents()
[0]
sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).idescents()
[1, 2]
sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).idescents(final_descent=True)
[1, 2, 3]
idescents_signature(final_descent=False)

Return the list obtained as follows: Each position in self is mapped to \(-1\) if it is an idescent and \(1\) if it is not an idescent.

See idescents() for a definition of idescents.

With the final_descent option, the last position of a non-empty permutation is also considered as a descent.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).idescents()
[1, 2]
sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).idescents_signature()
[1, -1, -1, 1]
imajor_index(final_descent=False)

Return the inverse major index of the permutation self, which is the major index of the inverse of self.

The major index of a permutation \(p\) is the sum of the descents of \(p\). Since our permutation indices are 0-based, we need to add the number of descents.

With the final_descent option, the last position of a non-empty permutation is also considered as a descent.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).imajor_index()
1
sage: Permutation([3,4,1,2]).imajor_index()
2
sage: Permutation([4,3,2,1]).imajor_index()
6
increasing_tree(compare=<built-in function min>)

Return the increasing tree associated to self

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).increasing_tree()
1[., 2[3[4[., .], .], .]]
sage: Permutation([4,1,3,2]).increasing_tree()
1[4[., .], 2[3[., .], .]]

By passing the option compare=max one can have the decreasing tree instead:

sage: Permutation([2,3,4,1]).increasing_tree(max)
4[3[2[., .], .], 1[., .]]
sage: Permutation([2,3,1,4]).increasing_tree(max)
4[3[2[., .], 1[., .]], .]
increasing_tree_shape(*args, **kwds)

Returns the shape of the increasing tree associated with the permutation.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).increasing_tree_shape()
[., [[[., .], .], .]]
sage: Permutation([4,1,3,2]).increasing_tree_shape()
[[., .], [[., .], .]]

By passing the option compare=max one can have the decreasing tree instead:

sage: Permutation([2,3,4,1]).increasing_tree_shape(max)
[[[., .], .], [., .]]
sage: Permutation([2,3,1,4]).increasing_tree_shape(max)
[[[., .], [., .]], .]
inverse(*args, **kwds)

Return the inverse of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3,8,5,10,9,4,6,1,7,2]).inverse()
[8, 10, 1, 6, 3, 7, 9, 2, 5, 4]
sage: Permutation([2, 4, 1, 5, 3]).inverse()
[3, 1, 5, 2, 4]
inversions()

Return a list of the inversions of self.

An inversion of a permutation \(p\) is a pair \((i, j)\) such that \(i < j\) and \(p(i) > p(j)\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3,2,4,1,5]).inversions()
[(1, 2), (1, 4), (2, 4), (3, 4)]
is_even()

Return True if the permutation self is even and False otherwise.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,2,3]).is_even()
True
sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).is_even()
False
ishift(i)

Return the i-shift of self. If an i-shift of self can’t be performed, then self is returned.

An \(i\)-shift can be applied when \(i\) is not inbetween \(i-1\) and \(i+1\). The \(i\)-shift moves \(i\) to the other side, and leaves the relative positions of \(i-1\) and \(i+1\) in place. All other entries of the permutations are also left in place.

EXAMPLES:

Here, \(2\) is to the left of both \(1\) and \(3\). A \(2\)-shift can be applied which moves the \(2\) to the right and leaves \(1\) and \(3\) in their same relative order:

sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).ishift(2)
[1, 3, 2]

All entries other than \(i\), \(i-1\) and \(i+1\) are unchanged:

sage: Permutation([2,4,1,3]).ishift(2)
[1, 4, 3, 2]

Since \(2\) is between \(1\) and \(3\) in [1,2,3], a \(2\)-shift cannot be applied to [1,2,3]

sage: Permutation([1,2,3]).ishift(2)
[1, 2, 3]
iswitch(i)

Return the i-switch of self. If an i-switch of self can’t be performed, then self is returned.

An \(i\)-switch can be applied when the subsequence of self formed by the entries \(i-1\), \(i\) and \(i+1\) is neither increasing nor decreasing. In this case, this subsequence is reversed (i. e., its leftmost element and its rightmost element switch places), while all other letters of self are kept in place.

EXAMPLES:

Here, \(2\) is to the left of both \(1\) and \(3\). A \(2\)-switch can be applied which moves the \(2\) to the right and switches the relative order between \(1\) and \(3\):

sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).iswitch(2)
[3, 1, 2]

All entries other than \(i-1\), \(i\) and \(i+1\) are unchanged:

sage: Permutation([2,4,1,3]).iswitch(2)
[3, 4, 1, 2]

Since \(2\) is between \(1\) and \(3\) in [1,2,3], a \(2\)-switch cannot be applied to [1,2,3]

sage: Permutation([1,2,3]).iswitch(2)
[1, 2, 3]
left_action_product(lp)

Return the permutation obtained by composing self with lp in such an order that lp is applied first and self is applied afterwards.

This is usually denoted by either self * lp or lp * self depending on the conventions used by the author. If the value of a permutation \(p \in S_n\) on an integer \(i \in \{ 1, 2, \cdots, n \}\) is denoted by \(p(i)\), then this should be denoted by self * lp in order to have associativity (i.e., in order to have \((p \cdot q)(i) = p(q(i))\) for all \(p\), \(q\) and \(i\)). If, on the other hand, the value of a permutation \(p \in S_n\) on an integer \(i \in \{ 1, 2, \cdots, n \}\) is denoted by \(i^p\), then this should be denoted by lp * self in order to have associativity (i.e., in order to have \(i^{p \cdot q} = (i^p)^q\) for all \(p\), \(q\) and \(i\)).

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([2,1,3])
sage: q = Permutation([3,1,2])
sage: p.left_action_product(q)
[3, 2, 1]
sage: q.left_action_product(p)
[1, 3, 2]
left_tableau(*args, **kwds)

Return the left standard tableau after performing the RSK algorithm on self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).left_tableau()
[[1, 2], [3], [4]]
length()

Return the Coxeter length of self.

The length of a permutation \(p\) is given by the number of inversions of \(p\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([5, 1, 3, 4, 2]).length()
6
longest_increasing_subsequence_length()

Return the length of the longest increasing subsequences of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,3,1,4]).longest_increasing_subsequence_length()
3
sage: all([i.longest_increasing_subsequence_length() == len(RSK(i)[0][0]) for i in Permutations(5)])
True
sage: Permutation([]).longest_increasing_subsequence_length()
0
longest_increasing_subsequences()

Return the list of the longest increasing subsequences of self.

Note

The algorithm is not optimal.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,3,4,1]).longest_increasing_subsequences()
[[2, 3, 4]]
sage: Permutation([5, 7, 1, 2, 6, 4, 3]).longest_increasing_subsequences()
[[1, 2, 6], [1, 2, 4], [1, 2, 3]]
major_index(final_descent=False)

Return the major index of self.

The major index of a permutation \(p\) is the sum of the descents of \(p\). Since our permutation indices are 0-based, we need to add the number of descents.

With the final_descent option, the last position of a non-empty permutation is also considered as a descent.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).major_index()
1
sage: Permutation([3,4,1,2]).major_index()
2
sage: Permutation([4,3,2,1]).major_index()
6
next()

Return the permutation that follows self in lexicographic order on the symmetric group containing self. If self is the last permutation, then next returns False.

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([1, 3, 2])
sage: p.next()
[2, 1, 3]
sage: p = Permutation([4,3,2,1])
sage: p.next()
False

TESTS:

sage: p = Permutation([])
sage: p.next()
False
noninversions(k)

Return the list of all k-noninversions in self.

If \(k\) is an integer and \(p \in S_n\) is a permutation, then a \(k\)-noninversion in \(p\) is defined as a strictly increasing sequence \((i_1, i_2, \ldots, i_k)\) of elements of \(\{ 1, 2, \ldots, n \}\) satisfying \(p(i_1) < p(i_2) < \cdots < p(i_k)\). (In other words, a \(k\)-noninversion in \(p\) can be regarded as a \(k\)-element subset of \(\{ 1, 2, \ldots, n \}\) on which \(p\) restricts to an increasing map.)

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([3, 2, 4, 1, 5])
sage: p.noninversions(1)
[[3], [2], [4], [1], [5]]
sage: p.noninversions(2)
[[3, 4], [3, 5], [2, 4], [2, 5], [4, 5], [1, 5]]
sage: p.noninversions(3)
[[3, 4, 5], [2, 4, 5]]
sage: p.noninversions(4)
[]
sage: p.noninversions(5)
[]

TESTS:

sage: q = Permutation([])
sage: q.noninversions(1)
[]
number_of_descents(final_descent=False)

Return the number of descents of self.

With the final_descent option, the last position of a non-empty permutation is also considered as a descent.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).number_of_descents()
2
sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).number_of_descents(final_descent=True)
3
number_of_fixed_points()

Return the number of fixed points of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,3,2,4]).number_of_fixed_points()
2
sage: Permutation([1,2,3,4]).number_of_fixed_points()
4
number_of_idescents(final_descent=False)

Return the number of idescents of self.

See idescents() for a definition of idescents.

With the final_descent option, the last position of a non-empty permutation is also considered as a descent.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).number_of_idescents()
2
sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).number_of_idescents(final_descent=True)
3
number_of_inversions()

Return the number of inversions in self.

An inversion of a permutation is a pair of elements \((i, j)\) with \(i < j\) and \(p(i) > p(j)\).

REFERENCES:

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3, 2, 4, 1, 5]).number_of_inversions()
4
sage: Permutation([1, 2, 6, 4, 7, 3, 5]).number_of_inversions()
6
number_of_noninversions(k)

Return the number of k-noninversions in self.

If \(k\) is an integer and \(p \in S_n\) is a permutation, then a \(k\)-noninversion in \(p\) is defined as a strictly increasing sequence \((i_1, i_2, \ldots, i_k)\) of elements of \(\{ 1, 2, \ldots, n \}\) satisfying \(p(i_1) < p(i_2) < \cdots < p(i_k)\). (In other words, a \(k\)-noninversion in \(p\) can be regarded as a \(k\)-element subset of \(\{ 1, 2, \ldots, n \}\) on which \(p\) restricts to an increasing map.)

The number of \(k\)-noninversions in \(p\) has been denoted by \(\mathrm{noninv}_k(p)\) in [RSW2011], where conjectures and results regarding this number have been stated.

REFERENCES:

[RSW2011]Victor Reiner, Franco Saliola, Volkmar Welker. Spectra of Symmetrized Shuffling Operators. Arxiv 1102.2460v2.

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([3, 2, 4, 1, 5])
sage: p.number_of_noninversions(1)
5
sage: p.number_of_noninversions(2)
6
sage: p.number_of_noninversions(3)
2
sage: p.number_of_noninversions(4)
0
sage: p.number_of_noninversions(5)
0

The number of \(2\)-noninversions of a permutation \(p \in S_n\) is \(\binom{n}{2}\) minus its number of inversions:

sage: b = binomial(5, 2)
sage: all( x.number_of_noninversions(2) == b - x.number_of_inversions()
....:      for x in Permutations(5) )
True

We also check some corner cases:

sage: all( x.number_of_noninversions(1) == 5 for x in Permutations(5) )
True
sage: all( x.number_of_noninversions(0) == 1 for x in Permutations(5) )
True
sage: Permutation([]).number_of_noninversions(1)
0
sage: Permutation([]).number_of_noninversions(0)
1
sage: Permutation([2, 1]).number_of_noninversions(3)
0
number_of_peaks()

Return the number of peaks of the permutation self.

A peak of a permutation \(p\) is an integer \(i\) such that \(p(i-1) < p(i)\) and \(p(i) > p(i+1)\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,3,2,4,5]).number_of_peaks()
1
sage: Permutation([4,1,3,2,6,5]).number_of_peaks()
2
number_of_recoils()

Return the number of recoils of the permutation self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).number_of_recoils()
2
number_of_saliances()

Return the number of saliances of self.

A saliance of a permutation \(p\) is an integer \(i\) such that \(p(i) > p(j)\) for all \(j > i\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,3,1,5,4]).number_of_saliances()
2
sage: Permutation([5,4,3,2,1]).number_of_saliances()
5
pattern_positions(patt)

Return the list of positions where the pattern patt appears in the permutation self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3,5,1,4,6,2]).pattern_positions([1,3,2])
[[0, 1, 3], [2, 3, 5], [2, 4, 5]]
peaks()

Return a list of the peaks of the permutation self.

A peak of a permutation \(p\) is an integer \(i\) such that \(p(i-1) < p(i)\) and \(p(i) > p(i+1)\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,3,2,4,5]).peaks()
[1]
sage: Permutation([4,1,3,2,6,5]).peaks()
[2, 4]
sage: Permutation([]).peaks()
[]
permutation_poset(*args, **kwds)

Return the permutation poset of self.

The permutation poset of a permutation \(p\) is the poset with vertices \((i, p(i))\) for \(i = 1, 2, \ldots, n\) (where \(n\) is the size of \(p\)) and order inherited from \(\ZZ \times \ZZ\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3,1,5,4,2]).permutation_poset().cover_relations()
[[(2, 1), (5, 2)], [(2, 1), (4, 4)], [(2, 1), (3, 5)], [(1, 3), (4, 4)], [(1, 3), (3, 5)]]
sage: Permutation([]).permutation_poset().cover_relations()
[]
sage: Permutation([1,3,2]).permutation_poset().cover_relations()
[[(1, 1), (2, 3)], [(1, 1), (3, 2)]]
sage: Permutation([1,2]).permutation_poset().cover_relations()
[[(1, 1), (2, 2)]]
sage: P = Permutation([1,5,2,4,3])
sage: P.permutation_poset().greene_shape() == P.RS_partition()   # This should hold for any P.
True
permutohedron_greater(side='right')

Return a list of permutations greater than or equal to self in the permutohedron order.

By default, the computations are done in the right permutohedron. If you pass the option side='left', then they will be done in the left permutohedron.

See permutohedron_lequal() for the definition of the permutohedron orders.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([4,2,1,3]).permutohedron_greater()
[[4, 2, 1, 3], [4, 2, 3, 1], [4, 3, 2, 1]]
sage: Permutation([4,2,1,3]).permutohedron_greater(side='left')
[[4, 2, 1, 3], [4, 3, 1, 2], [4, 3, 2, 1]]
permutohedron_lequal(p2, side='right')

Return True if self is less or equal to p2 in the permutohedron order.

By default, the computations are done in the right permutohedron. If you pass the option side='left', then they will be done in the left permutohedron.

For every nonnegative integer \(n\), the right (resp. left) permutohedron order (also called the right (resp. left) weak order, or the right (resp. left) weak Bruhat order) is a partial order on the symmetric group \(S_n\). It can be defined in various ways, including the following ones:

  • Two permutations \(u\) and \(v\) in \(S_n\) satisfy \(u \leq v\) in the right (resp. left) permutohedron order if and only if the (Coxeter) length of the permutation \(v^{-1} \circ u\) (resp. of the permutation \(u \circ v^{-1}\)) equals the length of \(v\) minus the length of \(u\). Here, \(p \circ q\) means the permutation obtained by applying \(q\) first and then \(p\). (Recall that the Coxeter length of a permutation is its number of inversions.)
  • Two permutations \(u\) and \(v\) in \(S_n\) satisfy \(u \leq v\) in the right (resp. left) permutohedron order if and only if every pair \((i, j)\) of elements of \(\{ 1, 2, \cdots, n \}\) such that \(i < j\) and \(u^{-1}(i) > u^{-1}(j)\) (resp. \(u(i) > u(j)\)) also satisfies \(v^{-1}(i) > v^{-1}(j)\) (resp. \(v(i) > v(j)\)).
  • A permutation \(v \in S_n\) covers a permutation \(u \in S_n\) in the right (resp. left) permutohedron order if and only if we have \(v = u \circ (i, i + 1)\) (resp. \(v = (i, i + 1) \circ u\)) for some \(i \in \{ 1, 2, \cdots, n - 1 \}\) satisfying \(u(i) < u(i + 1)\) (resp. \(u^{-1}(i) < u^{-1}(i + 1)\)). Here, again, \(p \circ q\) means the permutation obtained by applying \(q\) first and then \(p\).

The right and the left permutohedron order are mutually isomorphic, with the isomorphism being the map sending every permutation to its inverse. Each of these orders endows the symmetric group \(S_n\) with the structure of a graded poset (the rank function being the Coxeter length).

Warning

The permutohedron order is not to be mistaken for the strong Bruhat order (bruhat_lequal()), despite both orders being occasionally referred to as the Bruhat order.

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([3,2,1,4])
sage: p.permutohedron_lequal(Permutation([4,2,1,3]))
False
sage: p.permutohedron_lequal(Permutation([4,2,1,3]), side='left')
True
sage: p.permutohedron_lequal(p)
True

sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).permutohedron_lequal(Permutation([2,3,1]))
True
sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).permutohedron_lequal(Permutation([3,1,2]))
False
sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).permutohedron_lequal(Permutation([1,2,3]))
False
sage: Permutation([1,3,2]).permutohedron_lequal(Permutation([2,1,3]))
False
sage: Permutation([1,3,2]).permutohedron_lequal(Permutation([2,3,1]))
False
sage: Permutation([2,3,1]).permutohedron_lequal(Permutation([1,3,2]))
False
sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).permutohedron_lequal(Permutation([2,3,1]), side='left')
False
sage: sorted( [len([b for b in Permutations(3) if a.permutohedron_lequal(b)])
....:          for a in Permutations(3)] )
[1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 6]
sage: sorted( [len([b for b in Permutations(3) if a.permutohedron_lequal(b, side="left")])
....:          for a in Permutations(3)] )
[1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 6]

sage: Permutation([]).permutohedron_lequal(Permutation([]))
True
permutohedron_pred(side='right')

Return a list of the permutations strictly smaller than self in the permutohedron order such that there is no permutation between any of those and self.

By default, the computations are done in the right permutohedron. If you pass the option side='left', then they will be done in the left permutohedron.

See permutohedron_lequal() for the definition of the permutohedron orders.

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([4,2,1,3])
sage: p.permutohedron_pred()
[[2, 4, 1, 3], [4, 1, 2, 3]]
sage: p.permutohedron_pred(side='left')
[[4, 1, 2, 3], [3, 2, 1, 4]]
permutohedron_smaller(side='right')

Return a list of permutations smaller than or equal to self in the permutohedron order.

By default, the computations are done in the right permutohedron. If you pass the option side='left', then they will be done in the left permutohedron.

See permutohedron_lequal() for the definition of the permutohedron orders.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([4,2,1,3]).permutohedron_smaller()
[[1, 2, 3, 4],
 [1, 2, 4, 3],
 [1, 4, 2, 3],
 [2, 1, 3, 4],
 [2, 1, 4, 3],
 [2, 4, 1, 3],
 [4, 1, 2, 3],
 [4, 2, 1, 3]]
sage: Permutation([4,2,1,3]).permutohedron_smaller(side='left')
[[1, 2, 3, 4],
 [1, 3, 2, 4],
 [2, 1, 3, 4],
 [2, 3, 1, 4],
 [3, 1, 2, 4],
 [3, 2, 1, 4],
 [4, 1, 2, 3],
 [4, 2, 1, 3]]
permutohedron_succ(side='right')

Return a list of the permutations strictly greater than self in the permutohedron order such that there is no permutation between any of those and self.

By default, the computations are done in the right permutohedron. If you pass the option side='left', then they will be done in the left permutohedron.

See permutohedron_lequal() for the definition of the permutohedron orders.

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([4,2,1,3])
sage: p.permutohedron_succ()
[[4, 2, 3, 1]]
sage: p.permutohedron_succ(side='left')
[[4, 3, 1, 2]]
prev()

Return the permutation that comes directly before self in lexicographic order on the symmetric group containing self. If self is the first permutation, then it returns False.

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([1,2,3])
sage: p.prev()
False
sage: p = Permutation([1,3,2])
sage: p.prev()
[1, 2, 3]

TESTS:

sage: p = Permutation([])
sage: p.prev()
False
rank()

Return the rank of self in the lexicographic ordering on the symmetric group to which self belongs.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,2,3]).rank()
0
sage: Permutation([1, 2, 4, 6, 3, 5]).rank()
10
sage: perms = Permutations(6).list()
sage: [p.rank() for p in perms ] == range(factorial(6))
True
recoils()

Return the list of the positions of the recoils of self.

A recoil of a permutation \(p\) is an integer \(i\) such that \(i+1\) appears to the left of \(i\) in \(p\). Here, the positions are being counted starting at \(0\). (Note that it is the positions, not the recoils themselves, which are being listed.)

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).recoils()
[2, 3]
sage: Permutation([]).recoils()
[]
recoils_composition()

Return the recoils composition of self.

The recoils composition of a permutation \(p \in S_n\) is the composition of \(n\) whose descent set is the set of the recoils of \(p\) (not their positions). In other words, this is the descents composition of \(p^{-1}\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,3,2,4]).recoils_composition()
[2, 2]
sage: Permutation([]).recoils_composition()
[]
reduced_word()

Returns the reduced word of a permutation.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3,5,4,6,2,1]).reduced_word()
[2, 1, 4, 3, 2, 4, 3, 5, 4, 5]
reduced_word_lexmin()

Returns a lexicographically minimal reduced word of a permutation.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3,4,2,1]).reduced_word_lexmin()
[1, 2, 1, 3, 2]
reduced_words()

Return a list of the reduced words of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).reduced_words()
[[1]]
sage: Permutation([3,1,2]).reduced_words()
[[2, 1]]
sage: Permutation([3,2,1]).reduced_words()
[[1, 2, 1], [2, 1, 2]]
sage: Permutation([3,2,4,1]).reduced_words()
[[1, 2, 3, 1], [1, 2, 1, 3], [2, 1, 2, 3]]
remove_extra_fixed_points()

Returns the permutation obtained by removing any fixed points at the end of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,1,3]).remove_extra_fixed_points()
[2, 1]
sage: Permutation([1,2,3,4]).remove_extra_fixed_points()
[1]
reverse(*args, **kwds)

Returns the permutation obtained by reversing the list.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3,4,1,2]).reverse()
[2, 1, 4, 3]
sage: Permutation([1,2,3,4,5]).reverse()
[5, 4, 3, 2, 1]
right_action_product(rp)

Return the permutation obtained by composing self with lp in such an order that self is applied first and lp is applied afterwards.

This is usually denoted by either self * lp or lp * self depending on the conventions used by the author. If the value of a permutation \(p \in S_n\) on an integer \(i \in \{ 1, 2, \cdots, n \}\) is denoted by \(p(i)\), then this should be denoted by lp * self in order to have associativity (i.e., in order to have \((p \cdot q)(i) = p(q(i))\) for all \(p\), \(q\) and \(i\)). If, on the other hand, the value of a permutation \(p \in S_n\) on an integer \(i \in \{ 1, 2, \cdots, n \}\) is denoted by \(i^p\), then this should be denoted by self * lp in order to have associativity (i.e., in order to have \(i^{p \cdot q} = (i^p)^q\) for all \(p\), \(q\) and \(i\)).

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([2,1,3])
sage: q = Permutation([3,1,2])
sage: p.right_action_product(q)
[1, 3, 2]
sage: q.right_action_product(p)
[3, 2, 1]
right_permutohedron_interval(other)

Return the list of the permutations belonging to the right permutohedron interval where self is the minimal element and other the maximal element.

See permutohedron_lequal() for the definition of the permutohedron orders.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2, 1, 4, 5, 3]).right_permutohedron_interval(Permutation([2, 5, 4, 1, 3]))
[[2, 1, 4, 5, 3], [2, 1, 5, 4, 3], [2, 4, 1, 5, 3], [2, 4, 5, 1, 3], [2, 5, 1, 4, 3], [2, 5, 4, 1, 3]]

TESTS:

sage: Permutation([]).right_permutohedron_interval(Permutation([]))
[[]]
sage: Permutation([3, 1, 2]).right_permutohedron_interval(Permutation([3, 1, 2]))
[[3, 1, 2]]
sage: Permutation([1, 3, 2, 4]).right_permutohedron_interval(Permutation([3, 4, 2, 1]))
[[1, 3, 2, 4], [1, 3, 4, 2], [3, 1, 2, 4], [3, 1, 4, 2], [3, 2, 1, 4], [3, 2, 4, 1], [3, 4, 1, 2], [3, 4, 2, 1]]
sage: Permutation([2, 1, 4, 5, 3]).right_permutohedron_interval(Permutation([2, 5, 4, 1, 3]))
[[2, 1, 4, 5, 3], [2, 1, 5, 4, 3], [2, 4, 1, 5, 3], [2, 4, 5, 1, 3], [2, 5, 1, 4, 3], [2, 5, 4, 1, 3]]
sage: Permutation([2, 5, 4, 1, 3]).right_permutohedron_interval(Permutation([2, 1, 4, 5, 3]))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: [2, 5, 4, 1, 3] must be lower or equal than [2, 1, 4, 5, 3] for the right permutohedron order
sage: Permutation([2, 4, 1, 3]).right_permutohedron_interval(Permutation([2, 1, 4, 5, 3]))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: len([2, 4, 1, 3]) and len([2, 1, 4, 5, 3]) must be equal
right_permutohedron_interval_iterator(other)

Return an iterator on the permutations (represented as integer lists) belonging to the right permutohedron interval where self is the minimal element and other the maximal element.

See permutohedron_lequal() for the definition of the permutohedron orders.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2, 1, 4, 5, 3]).right_permutohedron_interval(Permutation([2, 5, 4, 1, 3])) # indirect doctest
[[2, 1, 4, 5, 3], [2, 1, 5, 4, 3], [2, 4, 1, 5, 3], [2, 4, 5, 1, 3], [2, 5, 1, 4, 3], [2, 5, 4, 1, 3]]
right_tableau(*args, **kwds)

Return the right standard tableau after performing the RSK algorithm on self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2]).right_tableau()
[[1, 2], [3], [4]]
robinson_schensted()

Return the pair of standard tableaux obtained by running the Robinson-Schensted algorithm on self.

This can also be done by running RSK() on self (with the optional argument check_standard=True to return standard Young tableaux).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([6,2,3,1,7,5,4]).robinson_schensted()
[[[1, 3, 4], [2, 5], [6, 7]], [[1, 3, 5], [2, 6], [4, 7]]]
runs()

Return a list of the runs in the nonempty permutation self.

A run in a permutation is defined to be a maximal (with respect to inclusion) nonempty increasing substring (i. e., contiguous subsequence). For instance, the runs in the permutation [6,1,7,3,4,5,2] are [6], [1,7], [3,4,5] and [2].

Runs in an empty permutation are not defined.

REFERENCES:

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,2,3,4]).runs()
[[1, 2, 3, 4]]
sage: Permutation([4,3,2,1]).runs()
[[4], [3], [2], [1]]
sage: Permutation([2,4,1,3]).runs()
[[2, 4], [1, 3]]
sage: Permutation([1]).runs()
[[1]]

The example from above:

sage: Permutation([6,1,7,3,4,5,2]).runs()
[[6], [1, 7], [3, 4, 5], [2]]

The number of runs in a nonempty permutation equals its number of descents plus 1:

sage: all( len(p.runs()) == p.number_of_descents() + 1
....:      for p in Permutations(6) )
True
saliances()

Return a list of the saliances of the permutation self.

A saliance of a permutation \(p\) is an integer \(i\) such that \(p(i) > p(j)\) for all \(j > i\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,3,1,5,4]).saliances()
[3, 4]
sage: Permutation([5,4,3,2,1]).saliances()
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4]
shifted_concatenation(other, side='right')

Return the right (or left) shifted concatenation of self with a permutation other. These operations are also known as the Loday-Ronco over and under operations.

INPUT:

  • other – a permutation, a list, a tuple, or any iterable representing a permutation.
  • side – (default: "right") the string “left” or “right”.

OUTPUT:

If side is "right", the method returns the permutation obtained by concatenating self with the letters of other incremented by the size of self. This is what is called side / other in [LodRon0102066], and denoted as the “over” operation. Otherwise, i. e., when side is "left", the method returns the permutation obtained by concatenating the letters of other incremented by the size of self with self. This is what is called side \ other in [LodRon0102066] (which seems to use the \((\sigma \pi)(i) = \pi(\sigma(i))\) convention for the product of permutations).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([]).shifted_concatenation(Permutation([]), "right")
[]
sage: Permutation([]).shifted_concatenation(Permutation([]), "left")
[]
sage: Permutation([2, 4, 1, 3]).shifted_concatenation(Permutation([3, 1, 2]), "right")
[2, 4, 1, 3, 7, 5, 6]
sage: Permutation([2, 4, 1, 3]).shifted_concatenation(Permutation([3, 1, 2]), "left")
[7, 5, 6, 2, 4, 1, 3]

REFERENCES:

[LodRon0102066](1, 2) Jean-Louis Loday and Maria O. Ronco, Order structure on the algebra of permutations and of planar binary trees, Arxiv math/0102066v1.
shifted_shuffle(other)

Return the shifted shuffle of two permutations self and other.

INPUT:

  • other – a permutation, a list, a tuple, or any iterable representing a permutation.

OUTPUT:

The list of the permutations appearing in the shifted shuffle of the permutations self and other.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([]).shifted_shuffle(Permutation([]))
[[]]
sage: Permutation([1, 2, 3]).shifted_shuffle(Permutation([1]))
[[1, 2, 3, 4], [1, 2, 4, 3], [1, 4, 2, 3], [4, 1, 2, 3]]
sage: Permutation([1, 2]).shifted_shuffle(Permutation([2, 1]))
[[1, 2, 4, 3], [1, 4, 2, 3], [1, 4, 3, 2], [4, 1, 2, 3], [4, 1, 3, 2], [4, 3, 1, 2]]
sage: Permutation([1]).shifted_shuffle([1])
[[1, 2], [2, 1]]
sage: len(Permutation([3, 1, 5, 4, 2]).shifted_shuffle(Permutation([2, 1, 4, 3])))
126

The shifted shuffle product is associative. We can test this on an admittedly toy example:

sage: all( all( all( sorted(flatten([abs.shifted_shuffle(c)
....:                                for abs in a.shifted_shuffle(b)]))
....:                == sorted(flatten([a.shifted_shuffle(bcs)
....:                                   for bcs in b.shifted_shuffle(c)]))
....:                for c in Permutations(2) )
....:           for b in Permutations(2) )
....:      for a in Permutations(2) )
True

The shifted_shuffle method on permutations gives the same permutations as the shifted_shuffle method on words (but is faster):

sage: all( all( sorted(p1.shifted_shuffle(p2))
....:           == sorted([Permutation(p) for p in
....:                      Word(p1).shifted_shuffle(Word(p2))])
....:           for p2 in Permutations(3) )
....:      for p1 in Permutations(2) )
True
show(representation='cycles', orientation='landscape', **args)

Display the permutation as a drawing.

INPUT:

  • representation – different kinds of drawings are available

    • "cycles" (default) – the permutation is displayed as a collection of directed cycles

    • "braid" – the permutation is displayed as segments linking each element \(1, ..., n\) to its image on a parallel line.

      When using this drawing, it is also possible to display the permutation horizontally (orientation = "landscape", default option) or vertically (orientation = "portrait").

    • "chord-diagram" – the permutation is displayed as a directed graph, all of its vertices being located on a circle.

All additional arguments are forwarded to the show subcalls.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(20).random_element().show(representation = "cycles")
sage: Permutations(20).random_element().show(representation = "chord-diagram")
sage: Permutations(20).random_element().show(representation = "braid")
sage: Permutations(20).random_element().show(representation = "braid", orientation='portrait')

TESTS:

sage: Permutations(20).random_element().show(representation = "modern_art")
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: The value of 'representation' must be equal to 'cycles', 'chord-diagram' or 'braid'
sign()

Return the signature of the permutation self. This is \((-1)^l\), where \(l\) is the number of inversions of self.

Note

sign() can be used as an alias for signature().

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([4, 2, 3, 1, 5]).signature()
-1
sage: Permutation([1,3,2,5,4]).sign()
1
sage: Permutation([]).sign()
1
signature()

Return the signature of the permutation self. This is \((-1)^l\), where \(l\) is the number of inversions of self.

Note

sign() can be used as an alias for signature().

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([4, 2, 3, 1, 5]).signature()
-1
sage: Permutation([1,3,2,5,4]).sign()
1
sage: Permutation([]).sign()
1
simion_schmidt(*args, **kwds)

Implements the Simion-Schmidt map which sends an arbitrary permutation to a pattern avoiding permutation, where the permutation pattern is one of four length-three patterns. This method also implements the bijection between (for example) [1,2,3]- and [1,3,2]-avoiding permutations.

INPUT:

  • avoid – one of the patterns [1,2,3], [1,3,2], [3,1,2], [3,2,1].

EXAMPLES:

sage: P=Permutations(6)
sage: p=P([4,5,1,6,3,2])
sage: pl= [ [1,2,3], [1,3,2], [3,1,2], [3,2,1] ]
sage: for q in pl:
....:     s=p.simion_schmidt(q)
....:     print s, s.has_pattern(q)
....:
[4, 6, 1, 5, 3, 2] False
[4, 2, 1, 3, 5, 6] False
[4, 5, 3, 6, 2, 1] False
[4, 5, 1, 6, 2, 3] False
size()

Return the size of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3,4,1,2,5]).size()
5
to_alternating_sign_matrix(*args, **kwds)

Return a matrix representing the permutation in the AlternatingSignMatrix class.

EXAMPLES:

sage: m = Permutation([1,2,3]).to_alternating_sign_matrix(); m
[1 0 0]
[0 1 0]
[0 0 1]
sage: parent(m)
Alternating sign matrices of size 3
to_cycles(singletons=True)

Return the permutation self as a list of disjoint cycles.

If singletons=False is given, the list does not contain the singleton cycles.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,1,3,4]).to_cycles()
[(1, 2), (3,), (4,)]
sage: Permutation([2,1,3,4]).to_cycles(singletons=False)
[(1, 2)]

The algorithm is of complexity \(O(n)\) where \(n\) is the size of the given permutation.

TESTS:

sage: from sage.combinat.permutation import from_cycles
sage: for n in range(1,6):
....:    for p in Permutations(n):
....:       if from_cycles(n, p.to_cycles()) != p:
....:          print "There is a problem with ",p
....:          break
sage: size = 10000
sage: sample = (Permutations(size).random_element() for i in range(5))
sage: all(from_cycles(size, p.to_cycles()) == p for p in sample)
True

Note: there is an alternative implementation called _to_cycle_set which could be slightly (10%) faster for some input (typically for permutations of size in the range [100, 10000]). You can run the following benchmarks. For small permutations:

sage: for size in range(9): # not tested
....:  print size
....:  lp = Permutations(size).list()
....:  timeit('[p.to_cycles(False) for p in lp]')
....:  timeit('[p._to_cycles_set(False) for p in lp]')
....:  timeit('[p._to_cycles_list(False) for p in lp]')
....:  timeit('[p._to_cycles_orig(False) for p in lp]')

and larger ones:

sage: for size in [10, 20, 50, 75, 100, 200, 500, 1000, # not tested
....:       2000, 5000, 10000, 15000, 20000, 30000,
....:       50000, 80000, 100000]:
....:    print(size)
....:    lp = [Permutations(size).random_element() for i in range(20)]
....:    timeit("[p.to_cycles() for p in lp]")
....:    timeit("[p._to_cycles_set() for p in lp]")
....:    timeit("[p._to_cycles_list() for p in lp]") # not tested
to_inversion_vector()

Return the inversion vector of self.

The inversion vector of a permutation \(p \in S_n\) is defined as the vector \((v_1, v_2, \ldots, v_n)\), where \(v_i\) is the number of elements larger than \(i\) that appear to the left of \(i\) in the permutation \(p\).

The algorithm is of complexity \(O(n\log(n))\) where \(n\) is the size of the given permutation.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([5,9,1,8,2,6,4,7,3]).to_inversion_vector()
[2, 3, 6, 4, 0, 2, 2, 1, 0]
sage: Permutation([8,7,2,1,9,4,6,5,10,3]).to_inversion_vector()
[3, 2, 7, 3, 4, 3, 1, 0, 0, 0]
sage: Permutation([3,2,4,1,5]).to_inversion_vector()
[3, 1, 0, 0, 0]

TESTS:

sage: from sage.combinat.permutation import from_inversion_vector
sage: all(from_inversion_vector(p.to_inversion_vector()) == p
....:   for n in range(6) for p in Permutations(n))
True

sage: P = Permutations(1000)
sage: sample = (P.random_element() for i in range(5))
sage: all(from_inversion_vector(p.to_inversion_vector()) == p
....:   for p in sample)
True
to_lehmer_cocode()

Return the Lehmer cocode of the permutation self.

The Lehmer cocode of a permutation \(p\) is defined as the list \((c_1, c_2, \ldots, c_n)\), where \(c_i\) is the number of \(j < i\) such that \(p(j) > p(i)\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([2,1,3])
sage: p.to_lehmer_cocode()
[0, 1, 0]
sage: q = Permutation([3,1,2])
sage: q.to_lehmer_cocode()
[0, 1, 1]
to_lehmer_code()

Returns the Lehmer code of the permutation self.

The Lehmer code of a permutation \(p\) is defined as the list \([c[1],c[2],...,c[n]]\), where \(c[i]\) is the number of \(j>i\) such that \(p(j)<p(i)\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutation([2,1,3])
sage: p.to_lehmer_code()
[1, 0, 0]
sage: q = Permutation([3,1,2])
sage: q.to_lehmer_code()
[2, 0, 0]

TESTS:

sage: from sage.combinat.permutation import from_lehmer_code
sage: all(from_lehmer_code(p.to_lehmer_code()) == p
....:   for n in range(6) for p in Permutations(n))
True

sage: P = Permutations(1000)
sage: sample = (P.random_element() for i in range(5))
sage: all(from_lehmer_code(p.to_lehmer_code()) == p
....:   for p in sample)
True
to_major_code(final_descent=False)

Return the major code of the permutation self.

The major code of a permutation \(p\) is defined as the sequence \((m_1-m_2, m_2-m_3, \ldots, m_n)\), where \(m_i\) is the major index of the permutation obtained by erasing all letters smaller than \(i\) from \(p\).

With the final_descent option, the last position of a non-empty permutation is also considered as a descent. This has an effect on the computation of major indices.

REFERENCES:

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([9,3,5,7,2,1,4,6,8]).to_major_code()
[5, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 0]
sage: Permutation([2,8,4,3,6,7,9,5,1]).to_major_code()
[8, 3, 3, 1, 4, 0, 1, 0, 0]
to_matrix()

Return a matrix representing the permutation.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,2,3]).to_matrix()
[1 0 0]
[0 1 0]
[0 0 1]
sage: Permutation([1,3,2]).to_matrix()
[1 0 0]
[0 0 1]
[0 1 0]

Notice that matrix multiplication corresponds to permutation multiplication only when the permutation option mult=’r2l’

sage: PermutationOptions(mult='r2l')
sage: p = Permutation([2,1,3])
sage: q = Permutation([3,1,2])
sage: (p*q).to_matrix()
[0 0 1]
[0 1 0]
[1 0 0]
sage: p.to_matrix()*q.to_matrix()
[0 0 1]
[0 1 0]
[1 0 0]
sage: PermutationOptions(mult='l2r')
sage: (p*q).to_matrix()
[1 0 0]
[0 0 1]
[0 1 0]
to_permutation_group_element()

Returns a PermutationGroupElement equal to self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([2,1,4,3]).to_permutation_group_element()
(1,2)(3,4)
sage: Permutation([1,2,3]).to_permutation_group_element()
()
to_tableau_by_shape(shape)

Return a tableau of shape shape with the entries in self. The tableau is such that the reading word (i. e., the word obtained by reading the tableau row by row, starting from the top row in English notation, with each row being read from left to right) is self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([3,4,1,2,5]).to_tableau_by_shape([3,2])
[[1, 2, 5], [3, 4]]
sage: Permutation([3,4,1,2,5]).to_tableau_by_shape([3,2]).reading_word_permutation()
[3, 4, 1, 2, 5]
weak_excedences()

Return all the numbers self[i] such that self[i] >= i+1.

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutation([1,4,3,2,5]).weak_excedences()
[1, 4, 3, 5]
class sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

Bases: sage.structure.parent.Parent, sage.structure.unique_representation.UniqueRepresentation

Permutations.

Permutations(n) returns the class of permutations of n, if n is an integer, list, set, or string.

Permutations(n, k) returns the class of length-k partial permutations of n (where n is any of the above things); k must be a nonnegative integer. A length-\(k\) partial permutation of \(n\) is defined as a \(k\)-tuple of pairwise distinct elements of \(\{ 1, 2, \ldots, n \}\).

Valid keyword arguments are: ‘descents’, ‘bruhat_smaller’, ‘bruhat_greater’, ‘recoils_finer’, ‘recoils_fatter’, ‘recoils’, and ‘avoiding’. With the exception of ‘avoiding’, you cannot specify n or k along with a keyword.

Permutations(descents=(list,n)) returns the class of permutations of \(n\) with descents in the positions specified by list. This uses the slightly nonstandard convention that the images of \(1,2,...,n\) under the permutation are regarded as positions \(0,1,...,n-1\), so for example the presence of \(1\) in list signifies that the permutations \(\pi\) should satisfy \(\pi(2) > \pi(3)\). Note that list is supposed to be a list of positions of the descents, not the descents composition. The alternative syntax Permutations(descents=list) is deprecated. It used to boil down Permutations(descents=(list, max(list) + 2)) (unless the list list is empty). It does not return the class of permutations with descents composition list.

Permutations(bruhat_smaller=p) and Permutations(bruhat_greater=p) return the class of permutations smaller-or-equal or greater-or-equal, respectively, than the given permutation p in the Bruhat order. (The Bruhat order is defined in bruhat_lequal(). It is also referred to as the strong Bruhat order.)

Permutations(recoils=p) returns the class of permutations whose recoils composition is p. Unlike the descents=(list, n) syntax, this actually takes a composition as input.

Permutations(recoils_fatter=p) and Permutations(recoils_finer=p) return the class of permutations whose recoils composition is fatter or finer, respectively, than the given composition p.

Permutations(n, avoiding=P) returns the class of permutations of n avoiding P. Here P may be a single permutation or a list of permutations; the returned class will avoid all patterns in P.

EXAMPLES:

sage: p = Permutations(3); p
Standard permutations of 3
sage: p.list()
[[1, 2, 3], [1, 3, 2], [2, 1, 3], [2, 3, 1], [3, 1, 2], [3, 2, 1]]
sage: p = Permutations(3, 2); p
Permutations of {1,...,3} of length 2
sage: p.list()
[[1, 2], [1, 3], [2, 1], [2, 3], [3, 1], [3, 2]]
sage: p = Permutations(['c', 'a', 't']); p
Permutations of the set ['c', 'a', 't']
sage: p.list()
[['c', 'a', 't'],
 ['c', 't', 'a'],
 ['a', 'c', 't'],
 ['a', 't', 'c'],
 ['t', 'c', 'a'],
 ['t', 'a', 'c']]
sage: p = Permutations(['c', 'a', 't'], 2); p
Permutations of the set ['c', 'a', 't'] of length 2
sage: p.list()
[['c', 'a'], ['c', 't'], ['a', 'c'], ['a', 't'], ['t', 'c'], ['t', 'a']]
sage: p = Permutations([1,1,2]); p
Permutations of the multi-set [1, 1, 2]
sage: p.list()
[[1, 1, 2], [1, 2, 1], [2, 1, 1]]
sage: p = Permutations([1,1,2], 2); p
Permutations of the multi-set [1, 1, 2] of length 2
sage: p.list()
[[1, 1], [1, 2], [2, 1]]
sage: p = Permutations(descents=([1], 4)); p
Standard permutations of 4 with descents [1]
sage: p.list()
[[1, 3, 2, 4], [1, 4, 2, 3], [2, 3, 1, 4], [2, 4, 1, 3], [3, 4, 1, 2]]
sage: p = Permutations(bruhat_smaller=[1,3,2,4]); p
Standard permutations that are less than or equal to [1, 3, 2, 4] in the Bruhat order
sage: p.list()
[[1, 2, 3, 4], [1, 3, 2, 4]]
sage: p = Permutations(bruhat_greater=[4,2,3,1]); p
Standard permutations that are greater than or equal to [4, 2, 3, 1] in the Bruhat order
sage: p.list()
[[4, 2, 3, 1], [4, 3, 2, 1]]
sage: p = Permutations(recoils_finer=[2,1]); p
Standard permutations whose recoils composition is finer than [2, 1]
sage: p.list()
[[1, 2, 3], [1, 3, 2], [3, 1, 2]]
sage: p = Permutations(recoils_fatter=[2,1]); p
Standard permutations whose recoils composition is fatter than [2, 1]
sage: p.list()
[[1, 3, 2], [3, 1, 2], [3, 2, 1]]
sage: p = Permutations(recoils=[2,1]); p
Standard permutations whose recoils composition is [2, 1]
sage: p.list()
[[1, 3, 2], [3, 1, 2]]
sage: p = Permutations(4, avoiding=[1,3,2]); p
Standard permutations of 4 avoiding [1, 3, 2]
sage: p.list()
[[4, 1, 2, 3],
 [4, 2, 1, 3],
 [4, 2, 3, 1],
 [4, 3, 1, 2],
 [4, 3, 2, 1],
 [3, 4, 1, 2],
 [3, 4, 2, 1],
 [2, 3, 4, 1],
 [3, 2, 4, 1],
 [1, 2, 3, 4],
 [2, 1, 3, 4],
 [2, 3, 1, 4],
 [3, 1, 2, 4],
 [3, 2, 1, 4]]
sage: p = Permutations(5, avoiding=[[3,4,1,2], [4,2,3,1]]); p
Standard permutations of 5 avoiding [[3, 4, 1, 2], [4, 2, 3, 1]]
sage: p.cardinality()
88
sage: p.random_element()
[1, 3, 5, 4, 2]
Element

alias of Permutation

global_options(*get_value, **set_value)

Set the global options for elements of the permutation class. The defaults are for permutations to be displayed in list notation and the multiplication done from left to right (like in GAP) – that is, \((\pi \psi)(i) = \psi(\pi(i))\) for all \(i\).

Note

These options have no effect on permutation group elements.

OPTIONS:

  • display – (default: list) Specifies how the permutations should be printed
    • cycle – the permutations are displayed in cycle notation (i. e., as products of disjoint cycles)
    • list – the permutations are displayed in list notation (aka 1-line notation)
    • reduced_expression – alias for reduced_word
    • reduced_word – the permutations are displayed as reduced words
    • singleton – the permutations are displayed in cycle notation with singleton cycles shown as well
    • word – alias for reduced_word
  • generator_name – (default: s) the letter used in latexing the reduced word
  • latex – (default: list) Specifies how the permutations should be latexed
    • cycle – latex in cycle notation
    • list – latex as a list in one-line notation
    • oneline – alias for list
    • reduced_expression – alias for reduced_word
    • reduced_word – latex as reduced words
    • singleton – latex in cycle notation with singleton cycles shown as well
    • twoline – latex in two-line notation
    • word – alias for reduced_word
  • latex_empty_str – (default: 1) The LaTeX representation of a reduced word when said word is empty
  • mult – (default: l2r) The multiplication of permutations
    • l2r – left to right: \((p_1 \cdot p_2)(x) = p_2(p_1(x))\)
    • r2l – right to left: \((p_1 \cdot p_2)(x) = p_1(p_2(x))\)

EXAMPLES:

sage: p213 = Permutation([2,1,3])
sage: p312 = Permutation([3,1,2])
sage: Permutations.global_options(mult='l2r', display='list')
sage: Permutations.global_options['display']
'list'
sage: p213
[2, 1, 3]
sage: Permutations.global_options(display='cycle')
sage: p213
(1,2)
sage: Permutations.global_options(display='singleton')
sage: p213
(1,2)(3)
sage: Permutations.global_options(display='list')
sage: Permutations.global_options['mult']
'l2r'
sage: p213*p312
[1, 3, 2]
sage: Permutations.global_options(mult='r2l')
sage: p213*p312
[3, 2, 1]
sage: Permutations.global_options.reset()

See GlobalOptions for more features of these options.

class sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations_mset(mset)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

Permutations of a multiset \(M\).

A permutation of a multiset \(M\) is represented by a list that contains exactly the same elements as \(M\) (with the same multiplicities), but possibly in different order. If \(M\) is a proper set there are \(|M| !\) such permutations. Otherwise, if the first element appears \(k_1\) times, the second element appears \(k_2\) times and so on, the number of permutations is \(|M|! / (k_1! k_2! \ldots)\), which is sometimes called a multinomial coefficient.

class Element

Bases: sage.structure.list_clone.ClonableArray

A permutation of an arbitrary multiset.

check()

Verify that self is a valid permutation of the underlying multiset.

EXAMPLES:

sage: S = Permutations(['c','a','c'])
sage: elt = S(['c','c','a'])
sage: elt.check()
Permutations_mset.cardinality()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations([1,2,2]).cardinality()
3
class sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations_msetk(mset, k)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations_mset

Length-\(k\) partial permutations of a multiset.

A length-\(k\) partial permutation of a multiset \(M\) is represented by a list of length \(k\) whose entries are elements of \(M\), appearing in the list with a multiplicity not higher than their respective multiplicity in \(M\).

class sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations_nk(n, k)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

Length-\(k\) partial permutations of \(\{1, 2, \ldots, n\}\).

class Element

Bases: sage.structure.list_clone.ClonableArray

A length-\(k\) partial permutation of \([n]\).

check()

Verify that self is a valid length-\(k\) partial permutation of \([n]\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: S = Permutations(4, 2)
sage: elt = S([3, 1])
sage: elt.check()
Permutations_nk.cardinality()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(3,0).cardinality()
1
sage: Permutations(3,1).cardinality()
3
sage: Permutations(3,2).cardinality()
6
sage: Permutations(3,3).cardinality()
6
sage: Permutations(3,4).cardinality()
0
Permutations_nk.random_element()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(3,2).random_element()
[0, 1]
class sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations_set(s)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

Permutations of an arbitrary given finite set.

Here, a “permutation of a finite set \(S\)” means a list of the elements of \(S\) in which every element of \(S\) occurs exactly once. This is not to be confused with bijections from \(S\) to \(S\), which are also often called permutations in literature.

class Element

Bases: sage.structure.list_clone.ClonableArray

A permutation of an arbitrary set.

check()

Verify that self is a valid permutation of the underlying set.

EXAMPLES:

sage: S = Permutations(['c','a','t'])
sage: elt = S(['t','c','a'])
sage: elt.check()
Permutations_set.cardinality()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations([1,2,3]).cardinality()
6
Permutations_set.random_element()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations([1,2,3]).random_element()
[1, 2, 3]
class sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations_setk(s, k)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations_set

Length-\(k\) partial permutations of an arbitrary given finite set.

Here, a “length-\(k\) partial permutation of a finite set \(S\)” means a list of length \(k\) whose entries are pairwise distinct and all belong to \(S\).

random_element()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations([1,2,3],2).random_element()
[1, 2]
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_all

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

All standard permutations.

class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_12(n)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_generic

TESTS:

sage: P = Permutations(3, avoiding=[1, 2])
sage: TestSuite(P).run()
cardinality()

Return the cardinality of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: P = Permutations(3, avoiding=[1, 2])
sage: P.cardinality()
1
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_123(n)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_generic

TESTS:

sage: P = Permutations(3, avoiding=[2, 1, 3])
sage: TestSuite(P).run()
cardinality()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(5, avoiding=[1, 2, 3]).cardinality()
42
sage: len( Permutations(5, avoiding=[1, 2, 3]).list() )
42
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_132(n)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_generic

TESTS:

sage: P = Permutations(3, avoiding=[1, 3, 2])
sage: TestSuite(P).run()
cardinality()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(5, avoiding=[1, 3, 2]).cardinality()
42
sage: len( Permutations(5, avoiding=[1, 3, 2]).list() )
42
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_21(n)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_generic

TESTS:

sage: P = Permutations(3, avoiding=[2, 1])
sage: TestSuite(P).run()
cardinality()

Return the cardinality of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: P = Permutations(3, avoiding=[2, 1])
sage: P.cardinality()
1
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_213(n)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_generic

TESTS:

sage: P = Permutations(3, avoiding=[2, 1, 3])
sage: TestSuite(P).run()
cardinality()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(5, avoiding=[2, 1, 3]).cardinality()
42
sage: len( Permutations(5, avoiding=[2, 1, 3]).list() )
42
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_231(n)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_generic

TESTS:

sage: P = Permutations(3, avoiding=[2, 3, 1])
sage: TestSuite(P).run()
cardinality()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(5, avoiding=[2, 3, 1]).cardinality()
42
sage: len( Permutations(5, avoiding=[2, 3, 1]).list() )
42
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_312(n)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_generic

TESTS:

sage: P = Permutations(3, avoiding=[3, 1, 2])
sage: TestSuite(P).run()
cardinality()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(5, avoiding=[3, 1, 2]).cardinality()
42
sage: len( Permutations(5, avoiding=[3, 1, 2]).list() )
42
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_321(n)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_generic

TESTS:

sage: P = Permutations(3, avoiding=[3, 2, 1])
sage: TestSuite(P).run()
cardinality()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(5, avoiding=[3, 2, 1]).cardinality()
42
sage: len( Permutations(5, avoiding=[3, 2, 1]).list() )
42
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_avoiding_generic(n, a)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_n

Generic class for subset of permutations avoiding a particular pattern.

cardinality()

Return the cardinality of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: P = Permutations(3, avoiding=[[2, 1, 3],[1,2,3]])
sage: P.cardinality()
4
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_bruhat_greater(p)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

Permutations of \(\{1, \ldots, n\}\) that are greater than or equal to a permutation \(p\) in the Bruhat order.

class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_bruhat_smaller(p)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

Permutations of \(\{1, \ldots, n\}\) that are less than or equal to a permutation \(p\) in the Bruhat order.

class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_descents(d, n)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_n

Permutations of \(\{1, \ldots, n\}\) with a fixed set of descents.

cardinality()

Return the cardinality of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: P = Permutations(descents=([1,0,2],5))
sage: P.cardinality()
4
first()

Return the first permutation with descents \(d\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(descents=([1,0,4,8],12)).first()
[3, 2, 1, 4, 6, 5, 7, 8, 10, 9, 11, 12]
last()

Return the last permutation with descents \(d\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(descents=([1,0,4,8],12)).last()
[12, 11, 8, 9, 10, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1, 2, 3]
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_n(n)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

Permutations of the set \(\{1, 2, \ldots, n\}\).

These are also called permutations of size \(n\).

cardinality()

Return the number of permutations of size \(n\), which is \(n!\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(0).cardinality()
1
sage: Permutations(3).cardinality()
6
sage: Permutations(4).cardinality()
24
element_in_conjugacy_classes(nu)

Return a permutation with cycle type nu.

If the size of nu is smaller than the size of permutations in self, then some fixed points are added.

EXAMPLES

sage: PP = Permutations(5)
sage: PP.element_in_conjugacy_classes([2,2])
[2, 1, 4, 3, 5]
identity()

Return the identity permutation of size \(n\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(4).identity()
[1, 2, 3, 4]
sage: Permutations(0).identity()
[]
random_element()

EXAMPLES:

sage: Permutations(4).random_element()
[1, 2, 4, 3]
rank(p)

EXAMPLES:

sage: SP3 = Permutations(3)
sage: map(SP3.rank, SP3)
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
sage: SP0 = Permutations(0)
sage: map(SP0.rank, SP0)
[0]
unrank(r)

EXAMPLES:

sage: SP3 = Permutations(3)
sage: l = map(SP3.unrank, range(6))
sage: l == SP3.list()
True
sage: SP0 = Permutations(0)
sage: l = map(SP0.unrank, range(1))
sage: l == SP0.list()
True
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_recoils(recoils)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

Permutations of \(\{1, \ldots, n\}\) with a fixed recoils composition.

class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_recoilsfatter(recoils)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

TESTS:

sage: P = Permutations(recoils_fatter=[2,2])
sage: TestSuite(P).run()
class sage.combinat.permutation.StandardPermutations_recoilsfiner(recoils)

Bases: sage.combinat.permutation.Permutations

TESTS:

sage: P = Permutations(recoils_finer=[2,2])
sage: TestSuite(P).run()
sage.combinat.permutation.bistochastic_as_sum_of_permutations(M, check=True)

Return the positive sum of permutations corresponding to the bistochastic matrix M.

A stochastic matrix is a matrix with nonnegative real entries such that the sum of the elements of any row is equal to \(1\). A bistochastic matrix is a stochastic matrix whose transpose matrix is also stochastic ( there are conditions both on the rows and on the columns ).

According to the Birkhoff-von Neumann Theorem, any bistochastic matrix can be written as a convex combination of permutation matrices, which also means that the polytope of bistochastic matrices is integer.

As a non-bistochastic matrix can obviously not be written as a convex combination of permutations, this theorem is an equivalence.

This function, given a bistochastic matrix, returns the corresponding decomposition.

INPUT:

  • M – A bistochastic matrix
  • check (boolean) – set to True (default) to check that the matrix is indeed bistochastic

OUTPUT:

  • An element of CombinatorialFreeModule, which is a free \(F\)-module ( where \(F\) is the ground ring of the given matrix ) whose basis is indexed by the permutations.

Note

  • In this function, we just assume 1 to be any constant : for us a matrix \(M\) is bistochastic if there exists \(c>0\) such that \(M/c\) is bistochastic.
  • You can obtain a sequence of pairs (permutation,coeff), where permutation is a Sage Permutation instance, and coeff its corresponding coefficient from the result of this function by applying the list function.
  • If you are interested in the matrix corresponding to a Permutation you will be glad to learn about the Permutation.to_matrix() method.
  • The base ring of the matrix can be anything that can be coerced to RR.

EXAMPLES:

We create a bistochastic matrix from a convex sum of permutations, then try to deduce the decomposition from the matrix:

sage: from sage.combinat.permutation import bistochastic_as_sum_of_permutations
sage: L = []
sage: L.append((9,Permutation([4, 1, 3, 5, 2])))
sage: L.append((6,Permutation([5, 3, 4, 1, 2])))
sage: L.append((3,Permutation([3, 1, 4, 2, 5])))
sage: L.append((2,Permutation([1, 4, 2, 3, 5])))
sage: M = sum([c * p.to_matrix() for (c,p) in L])
sage: decomp = bistochastic_as_sum_of_permutations(M)
sage: print decomp
2*B[[1, 4, 2, 3, 5]] + 3*B[[3, 1, 4, 2, 5]] + 9*B[[4, 1, 3, 5, 2]] + 6*B[[5, 3, 4, 1, 2]]

An exception is raised when the matrix is not positive and bistochastic:

sage: M = Matrix([[2,3],[2,2]])
sage: decomp = bistochastic_as_sum_of_permutations(M)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: The matrix is not bistochastic

sage: bistochastic_as_sum_of_permutations(Matrix(GF(7), 2, [2,1,1,2]))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: The base ring of the matrix must have a coercion map to RR

sage: bistochastic_as_sum_of_permutations(Matrix(ZZ, 2, [2,-1,-1,2]))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: The matrix should have nonnegative entries
sage.combinat.permutation.bruhat_lequal(p1, p2)

Return True if p1 is less than p2 in the Bruhat order.

Algorithm from mupad-combinat.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: permutation.bruhat_lequal([2,4,3,1],[3,4,2,1])
True
sage.combinat.permutation.descents_composition_first(dc)

Compute the smallest element of a descent class having a descent composition dc.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: permutation.descents_composition_first([1,1,3,4,3])
[3, 2, 1, 4, 6, 5, 7, 8, 10, 9, 11, 12]
sage.combinat.permutation.descents_composition_last(dc)

Return the largest element of a descent class having a descent composition dc.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: permutation.descents_composition_last([1,1,3,4,3])
[12, 11, 8, 9, 10, 4, 5, 6, 7, 1, 2, 3]
sage.combinat.permutation.descents_composition_list(dc)

Return a list of all the permutations that have the descent composition dc.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: permutation.descents_composition_list([1,2,2])
[[2, 1, 4, 3, 5],
 [2, 1, 5, 3, 4],
 [3, 1, 4, 2, 5],
 [3, 1, 5, 2, 4],
 [4, 1, 3, 2, 5],
 [5, 1, 3, 2, 4],
 [4, 1, 5, 2, 3],
 [5, 1, 4, 2, 3],
 [3, 2, 4, 1, 5],
 [3, 2, 5, 1, 4],
 [4, 2, 3, 1, 5],
 [5, 2, 3, 1, 4],
 [4, 2, 5, 1, 3],
 [5, 2, 4, 1, 3],
 [4, 3, 5, 1, 2],
 [5, 3, 4, 1, 2]]
sage.combinat.permutation.from_cycles(n, cycles)

Return the permutation in the \(n\)-th symmetric group whose decomposition into disjoint cycles is cycles.

This function checks that its input is correct (i.e. that the cycles are disjoint and their elements integers among \(1...n\)). It raises an exception otherwise.

Warning

It assumes that the elements are of int type.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: permutation.from_cycles(4, [[1,2]])
[2, 1, 3, 4]
sage: permutation.from_cycles(4, [[1,2,4]])
[2, 4, 3, 1]
sage: permutation.from_cycles(10, [[3,1],[4,5],[6,8,9]])
[3, 2, 1, 5, 4, 8, 7, 9, 6, 10]
sage: permutation.from_cycles(10, ((2, 5), (6, 1, 3)))
[3, 5, 6, 4, 2, 1, 7, 8, 9, 10]
sage: permutation.from_cycles(4, [])
[1, 2, 3, 4]
sage: permutation.from_cycles(4, [[]])
[1, 2, 3, 4]
sage: permutation.from_cycles(0, [])
[]

Bad input (see trac ticket #13742):

sage: Permutation("(-12,2)(3,4)")
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: All elements should be strictly positive integers, and I just found a negative one.
sage: Permutation("(1,2)(2,4)")
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: An element appears twice. It should not.
sage: permutation.from_cycles(4, [[1,18]])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: You claimed that this was a permutation on 1...4 but it contains 18
sage.combinat.permutation.from_inversion_vector(iv)

Return the permutation corresponding to inversion vector iv.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: permutation.from_inversion_vector([3,1,0,0,0])
[3, 2, 4, 1, 5]
sage: permutation.from_inversion_vector([2,3,6,4,0,2,2,1,0])
[5, 9, 1, 8, 2, 6, 4, 7, 3]
sage.combinat.permutation.from_lehmer_code(lehmer)

Return the permutation with Lehmer code lehmer.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: Permutation([2,1,5,4,3]).to_lehmer_code()
[1, 0, 2, 1, 0]
sage: permutation.from_lehmer_code(_)
[2, 1, 5, 4, 3]
sage.combinat.permutation.from_major_code(mc, final_descent=False)

Return the permutation corresponding to major code mc.

Warning

This function creates illegal permutations (i.e. Permutation([9]), and this is dangerous as the Permutation() class is only designed to handle permutations on \(1...n\). This will have to be changed when Sage permutations will be able to handle anything, but right now this should be fixed. Be careful with the results.

REFERENCES:

  • Skandera, M. ‘An Eulerian Partner for Inversions’, Sem. Lothar. Combin. 46 (2001) B46d.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: permutation.from_major_code([5, 0, 1, 0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 0])
[9, 3, 5, 7, 2, 1, 4, 6, 8]
sage: permutation.from_major_code([8, 3, 3, 1, 4, 0, 1, 0, 0])
[2, 8, 4, 3, 6, 7, 9, 5, 1]
sage: Permutation([2,1,6,4,7,3,5]).to_major_code()
[3, 2, 0, 2, 2, 0, 0]
sage: permutation.from_major_code([3, 2, 0, 2, 2, 0, 0])
[2, 1, 6, 4, 7, 3, 5]

TESTS:

sage: permutation.from_major_code([])
[]
sage.combinat.permutation.from_permutation_group_element(pge)

Return a Permutation given a PermutationGroupElement pge.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: pge = PermutationGroupElement([(1,2),(3,4)])
sage: permutation.from_permutation_group_element(pge)
[2, 1, 4, 3]
sage.combinat.permutation.from_rank(n, rank)

Return the permutation of the set \(\{1,...,n\}\) with lexicographic rank rank. This is the permutation whose Lehmer code is the factoradic representation of rank. In particular, the permutation with rank \(0\) is the identity permutation.

The permutation is computed without iterating through all of the permutations with lower rank. This makes it efficient for large permutations.

Note

The variable rank is not checked for being in the interval from \(0\) to \(n! - 1\). When outside this interval, it acts as its residue modulo \(n!\).

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: Permutation([3, 6, 5, 4, 2, 1]).rank()
359
sage: [permutation.from_rank(3, i) for i in range(6)]
[[1, 2, 3], [1, 3, 2], [2, 1, 3], [2, 3, 1], [3, 1, 2], [3, 2, 1]]
sage: Permutations(6)[10]
[1, 2, 4, 6, 3, 5]
sage: permutation.from_rank(6,10)
[1, 2, 4, 6, 3, 5]
sage.combinat.permutation.from_reduced_word(rw)

Return the permutation corresponding to the reduced word rw.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: permutation.from_reduced_word([3,2,3,1,2,3,1])
[3, 4, 2, 1]
sage: permutation.from_reduced_word([])
[]
sage.combinat.permutation.permutohedron_lequal(p1, p2, side='right')

Return True if p1 is less than or equal to p2 in the permutohedron order.

By default, the computations are done in the right permutohedron. If you pass the option side='left', then they will be done in the left permutohedron.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: permutation.permutohedron_lequal(Permutation([3,2,1,4]),Permutation([4,2,1,3]))
False
sage: permutation.permutohedron_lequal(Permutation([3,2,1,4]),Permutation([4,2,1,3]), side='left')
True
sage.combinat.permutation.to_standard(p)

Return a standard permutation corresponding to the permutation p.

EXAMPLES:

sage: import sage.combinat.permutation as permutation
sage: permutation.to_standard([4,2,7])
[2, 1, 3]
sage: permutation.to_standard([1,2,3])
[1, 2, 3]
sage: permutation.to_standard([])
[]

TESTS:

Does not mutate the list:

sage: a = [1,2,4]
sage: permutation.to_standard(a)
[1, 2, 3]
sage: a
[1, 2, 4]

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