Additive Abelian Groups

Additive abelian groups are just modules over \(\ZZ\). Hence the classes in this module derive from those in the module sage.modules.fg_pid. The only major differences are in the way elements are printed.

sage.groups.additive_abelian.additive_abelian_group.AdditiveAbelianGroup(invs, remember_generators=True)

Construct a finitely-generated additive abelian group.

INPUTS:

  • invs (list of integers): the invariants. These should all be greater than or equal to zero.
  • remember_generators (boolean): whether or not to fix a set of generators (corresponding to the given invariants, which need not be in Smith form).

OUTPUT:

The abelian group \(\bigoplus_i \ZZ / n_i \ZZ\), where \(n_i\) are the invariants.

EXAMPLE:

sage: AdditiveAbelianGroup([0, 2, 4])
Additive abelian group isomorphic to Z + Z/2 + Z/4

An example of the remember_generators switch:

sage: G = AdditiveAbelianGroup([0, 2, 3]); G
Additive abelian group isomorphic to Z + Z/2 + Z/3
sage: G.gens()
((1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1))

sage: H = AdditiveAbelianGroup([0, 2, 3], remember_generators = False); H
Additive abelian group isomorphic to Z/6 + Z
sage: H.gens()
((0, 1, 2), (1, 0, 0))

There are several ways to create elements of an additive abelian group. Realize that there are two sets of generators: the “obvious” ones composed of zeros and ones, one for each invariant given to construct the group, the other being a set of minimal generators. Which set is the default varies with the use of the remember_generators switch.

First with “obvious” generators. Note that a raw list will use the minimal generators and a vector (a module element) will use the generators that pair up naturally with the invariants. We create the same element repeatedly.

sage: H=AdditiveAbelianGroup([3,2,0], remember_generators=True)
sage: H.gens()
((1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1))
sage: [H.0, H.1, H.2]
[(1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1)]
sage: p=H.0+H.1+6*H.2; p
(1, 1, 6)

sage: H.smith_form_gens()
((2, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1))
sage: q=H.linear_combination_of_smith_form_gens([5,6]); q
(1, 1, 6)
sage: p==q
True

sage: r=H(vector([1,1,6])); r
(1, 1, 6)
sage: p==r
True

sage: s=H(p)
sage: p==s
True

Again, but now where the generators are the minimal set. Coercing a list or a vector works as before, but the default generators are different.

sage: G=AdditiveAbelianGroup([3,2,0], remember_generators=False)
sage: G.gens()
((2, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1))
sage: [G.0, G.1]
[(2, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1)]
sage: p=5*G.0+6*G.1; p
(1, 1, 6)

sage: H.smith_form_gens()
((2, 1, 0), (0, 0, 1))
sage: q=G.linear_combination_of_smith_form_gens([5,6]); q
(1, 1, 6)
sage: p==q
True

sage: r=G(vector([1,1,6])); r
(1, 1, 6)
sage: p==r
True

sage: s=H(p)
sage: p==s
True
class sage.groups.additive_abelian.additive_abelian_group.AdditiveAbelianGroupElement(parent, x, check=True)

Bases: sage.modules.fg_pid.fgp_element.FGP_Element

An element of an AdditiveAbelianGroup_class.

class sage.groups.additive_abelian.additive_abelian_group.AdditiveAbelianGroup_class(cover, relations)

Bases: sage.modules.fg_pid.fgp_module.FGP_Module_class, sage.groups.old.AbelianGroup

An additive abelian group, implemented using the \(\ZZ\)-module machinery.

INPUT:

  • cover – the covering group as \(\ZZ\)-module.
  • relations – the relations as submodule of cover.
Element

alias of AdditiveAbelianGroupElement

exponent()

Return the exponent of this group (the smallest positive integer \(N\) such that \(Nx = 0\) for all \(x\) in the group). If there is no such integer, return 0.

EXAMPLES:

sage: AdditiveAbelianGroup([2,4]).exponent()
4
sage: AdditiveAbelianGroup([0, 2,4]).exponent()
0
sage: AdditiveAbelianGroup([]).exponent()
1
is_cyclic()

Returns True if the group is cyclic.

EXAMPLES:

With no common factors between the orders of the generators, the group will be cyclic.

sage: G=AdditiveAbelianGroup([6, 7, 55])
sage: G.is_cyclic()
True

Repeating primes in the orders will create a non-cyclic group.

sage: G=AdditiveAbelianGroup([6, 15, 21, 33])
sage: G.is_cyclic()
False

A trivial group is trivially cyclic.

sage: T=AdditiveAbelianGroup([1])
sage: T.is_cyclic()
True
is_multiplicative()

Return False since this is an additive group.

EXAMPLE:

sage: AdditiveAbelianGroup([0]).is_multiplicative()
False
order()

Return the order of this group (an integer or infinity)

EXAMPLES:

sage: AdditiveAbelianGroup([2,4]).order()
8
sage: AdditiveAbelianGroup([0, 2,4]).order()
+Infinity
sage: AdditiveAbelianGroup([]).order()
1
short_name()

Return a name for the isomorphism class of this group.

EXAMPLE:

sage: AdditiveAbelianGroup([0, 2,4]).short_name()
'Z + Z/2 + Z/4'
sage: AdditiveAbelianGroup([0, 2, 3]).short_name()
'Z + Z/2 + Z/3'
class sage.groups.additive_abelian.additive_abelian_group.AdditiveAbelianGroup_fixed_gens(cover, rels, gens)

Bases: sage.groups.additive_abelian.additive_abelian_group.AdditiveAbelianGroup_class

A variant which fixes a set of generators, which need not be in Smith form (or indeed independent).

gens()

Return the specified generators for self (as a tuple). Compare self.smithform_gens().

EXAMPLE:

sage: G = AdditiveAbelianGroup([2,3])
sage: G.gens()
((1, 0), (0, 1))
sage: G.smith_form_gens()
((1, 2),)
identity()

Return the identity (zero) element of this group.

EXAMPLE:

sage: G = AdditiveAbelianGroup([2, 3])
sage: G.identity()
(0, 0)
permutation_group()

Return the permutation group attached to this group.

EXAMPLE:

sage: G = AdditiveAbelianGroup([2, 3])
sage: G.permutation_group()
Permutation Group with generators [(3,4,5), (1,2)]
sage.groups.additive_abelian.additive_abelian_group.cover_and_relations_from_invariants(invs)

A utility function to construct modules required to initialize the super class.

Given a list of integers, this routine constructs the obvious pair of free modules such that the quotient of the two free modules over \(\ZZ\) is naturally isomorphic to the corresponding product of cyclic modules (and hence isomorphic to a direct sum of cyclic groups).

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.groups.additive_abelian.additive_abelian_group import cover_and_relations_from_invariants as cr
sage: cr([0,2,3])
(Ambient free module of rank 3 over the principal ideal domain Integer Ring, Free module of degree 3 and rank 2 over Integer Ring
Echelon basis matrix:
[0 2 0]
[0 0 3])

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