This module implements a wrapper of GAP’s ConjugacyClass function.
There are two main classes, ConjugacyClass and ConjugacyClassGAP. All generic methods should go into ConjugacyClass, whereas ConjugacyClassGAP should only contain wrappers for GAP functions. ConjugacyClass contains some fallback methods in case some group cannot be defined as a GAP object.
Todo
EXAMPLES:
Conjugacy classes for groups of permutations:
sage: G = SymmetricGroup(4)
sage: g = G((1,2,3,4))
sage: G.conjugacy_class(g)
Conjugacy class of (1,2,3,4) in Symmetric group of order 4! as a permutation group
Conjugacy classes for groups of matrices:
sage: F = GF(5)
sage: gens = [matrix(F,2,[1,2, -1, 1]), matrix(F,2, [1,1, 0,1])]
sage: H = MatrixGroup(gens)
sage: h = H(matrix(F,2,[1,2, -1, 1]))
sage: H.conjugacy_class(h)
Conjugacy class of [1 2]
[4 1] in Matrix group over Finite Field of size 5 with 2 generators (
[1 2] [1 1]
[4 1], [0 1]
)
TESTS:
sage: G = SymmetricGroup(3)
sage: g = G((1,2,3))
sage: C = ConjugacyClass(G,g)
sage: TestSuite(C).run()
Bases: sage.structure.parent.Parent
Generic conjugacy classes for elements in a group.
This is the default fall-back implementation to be used whenever GAP cannot handle the group.
EXAMPLES:
sage: G = SymmetricGroup(4)
sage: g = G((1,2,3,4))
sage: ConjugacyClass(G,g)
Conjugacy class of (1,2,3,4) in Symmetric group of order 4! as a
permutation group
Checks if self is rational (closed for powers).
EXAMPLES:
sage: G = SymmetricGroup(4)
sage: g = G((1,2,3,4))
sage: c = ConjugacyClass(G,g)
sage: c.is_rational()
False
Checks if self is real (closed for inverses).
EXAMPLES:
sage: G = SymmetricGroup(4)
sage: g = G((1,2,3,4))
sage: c = ConjugacyClass(G,g)
sage: c.is_real()
True
Return a list with all the elements of self.
EXAMPLES:
Groups of permutations:
sage: G = SymmetricGroup(3)
sage: g = G((1,2,3))
sage: c = ConjugacyClass(G,g)
sage: L = c.list()
sage: Set(L) == Set([G((1,3,2)), G((1,2,3))])
True
Return a representative of self.
EXAMPLES:
sage: G = SymmetricGroup(3)
sage: g = G((1,2,3))
sage: C = ConjugacyClass(G,g)
sage: C.representative()
(1,2,3)
Naive algorithm to give a set with all the elements of the conjugacy class.
Todo
Implement a non-naive algorithm, cf. for instance G. Butler: “An Inductive Schema for Computing Conjugacy Classes in Permutation Groups”, Math. of Comp. Vol. 62, No. 205 (1994)
EXAMPLES:
Groups of permutations:
sage: G = SymmetricGroup(3)
sage: g = G((1,2))
sage: C = ConjugacyClass(G,g)
sage: S = [(2,3), (1,2), (1,3)]
sage: C.set() == Set(G(x) for x in S)
True
Groups of matrices over finite fields:
sage: F = GF(5)
sage: gens = [matrix(F,2,[1,2, -1, 1]), matrix(F,2, [1,1, 0,1])]
sage: H = MatrixGroup(gens)
sage: h = H(matrix(F,2,[1,2, -1, 1]))
sage: C = ConjugacyClass(H,h)
sage: S = [[[3, 2], [2, 4]], [[0, 1], [2, 2]], [[3, 4], [1, 4]],\
[[0, 3], [4, 2]], [[1, 2], [4, 1]], [[2, 1], [2, 0]],\
[[4, 1], [4, 3]], [[4, 4], [1, 3]], [[2, 4], [3, 0]],\
[[1, 4], [2, 1]], [[3, 3], [3, 4]], [[2, 3], [4, 0]],\
[[0, 2], [1, 2]], [[1, 3], [1, 1]], [[4, 3], [3, 3]],\
[[4, 2], [2, 3]], [[0, 4], [3, 2]], [[1, 1], [3, 1]],\
[[2, 2], [1, 0]], [[3, 1], [4, 4]]]
sage: C.set() == Set(H(x) for x in S)
True
Bases: sage.groups.conjugacy_classes.ConjugacyClass
Class for a conjugacy class for groups defined over GAP. Intended for wrapping GAP methods on conjugacy classes.
INPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: G = SymmetricGroup(4)
sage: g = G((1,2,3,4))
sage: ConjugacyClassGAP(G,g)
Conjugacy class of (1,2,3,4) in Symmetric group of order 4! as a
permutation group
Return a Sage Set with all the elements of the conjugacy class.
By default attempts to use GAP construction of the conjugacy class. If GAP method is not implemented for the given group, and the group is finite, falls back to a naive algorithm.
Warning
The naive algorithm can be really slow and memory intensive.
EXAMPLES:
Groups of permutations:
sage: G = SymmetricGroup(4)
sage: g = G((1,2,3,4))
sage: C = ConjugacyClassGAP(G,g)
sage: S = [(1,3,2,4), (1,4,3,2), (1,3,4,2), (1,2,3,4), (1,4,2,3), (1,2,4,3)]
sage: C.set() == Set(G(x) for x in S)
True