# Dirichlet characters¶

A DirichletCharacter is the extension of a homomorphism

$(\ZZ/N\ZZ)^* \to R^*,$

for some ring $$R$$, to the map $$\ZZ/N\ZZ \to R$$ obtained by sending those $$x\in\ZZ/N\ZZ$$ with $$\gcd(N,x)>1$$ to $$0$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(35)
sage: x = G.gens()
sage: e = x[0]*x[1]^2; e
Dirichlet character modulo 35 of conductor 35 mapping 22 |--> zeta12^3, 31 |--> zeta12^2 - 1
sage: e.order()
12


This illustrates a canonical coercion.

sage: e = DirichletGroup(5, QQ).0
sage: f = DirichletGroup(5,CyclotomicField(4)).0
sage: e*f
Dirichlet character modulo 5 of conductor 5 mapping 2 |--> -zeta4


AUTHORS:

• William Stein (2005-09-02): Fixed bug in comparison of Dirichlet characters. It was checking that their values were the same, but not checking that they had the same level!
• William Stein (2006-01-07): added more examples
• William Stein (2006-05-21): added examples of everything; fix a lot of tiny bugs and design problem that became clear when creating examples.
• Craig Citro (2008-02-16): speed up __call__ method for Dirichlet characters, miscellaneous fixes
• Julian Rueth (2014-03-06): use UniqueFactory to cache DirichletGroups
class sage.modular.dirichlet.DirichletCharacter(parent, x, check=True)

A Dirichlet character

bar()

Return the complex conjugate of this Dirichlet character.

EXAMPLES:

sage: e = DirichletGroup(5).0
sage: e
Dirichlet character modulo 5 of conductor 5 mapping 2 |--> zeta4
sage: e.bar()
Dirichlet character modulo 5 of conductor 5 mapping 2 |--> -zeta4

base_ring()

Returns the base ring of this Dirichlet character.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(11)
sage: G.gen(0).base_ring()
Cyclotomic Field of order 10 and degree 4
sage: G = DirichletGroup(11, RationalField())
sage: G.gen(0).base_ring()
Rational Field

bernoulli(k, algorithm='recurrence', cache=True, **opts)

Returns the generalized Bernoulli number $$B_{k,eps}$$.

INPUT:

• k - an integer
• algorithm - string (default: ‘recurrence’); either ‘recurrence’ or ‘definition’. The ‘recurrence’ algorithm expresses generalized Bernoulli numbers in terms of classical Bernoulli numbers using a recurrence formula and is usually optimal. In this case **opts is passed onto the bernoulli function.
• cache - if True, cache answers

Let eps be this character (not necessarily primitive), and let $$k \geq 0$$ be an integer weight. This function computes the (generalized) Bernoulli number $$B_{k,eps}$$, e.g., as defined on page 44 of Diamond-Im:

$\sum_{a=1}^{N} \varepsilon(a) t*e^{at} / (e^{Nt}-1) = sum_{k=0}^{\infty} B_{k,eps}/{k!} t^k.$

where $$N$$ is the modulus of $$\varepsilon$$.

The default algorithm is the recurrence on page 656 of Cohen’s GTM ‘Number Theory and Diophantine Equations’, section 9.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(13)
sage: e = G.0
sage: e.bernoulli(5)
7430/13*zeta12^3 - 34750/13*zeta12^2 - 11380/13*zeta12 + 9110/13
sage: eps = DirichletGroup(9).0
sage: eps.bernoulli(3)
10*zeta6 + 4
sage: eps.bernoulli(3, algorithm="definition")
10*zeta6 + 4

change_ring(R)

Returns the base extension of self to the ring R.

EXAMPLE:

sage: e = DirichletGroup(7, QQ).0
sage: f.parent()
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 7 over Number Field in a with defining polynomial x^2 - 3

sage: e = DirichletGroup(13).0
sage: e.change_ring(QQ)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: cannot coerce element of order 12 into self

conductor()

Computes and returns the conductor of this character.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G.<a,b> = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: a.conductor()
4
sage: b.conductor()
5
sage: (a*b).conductor()
20


TESTS:

sage: G.<a, b> = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: type(G(1).conductor())
<type 'sage.rings.integer.Integer'>

decomposition()

Return the decomposition of self as a product of Dirichlet characters of prime power modulus, where the prime powers exactly divide the modulus of this character.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G.<a,b> = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: c = a*b
sage: d = c.decomposition(); d
[Dirichlet character modulo 4 of conductor 4 mapping 3 |--> -1, Dirichlet character modulo 5 of conductor 5 mapping 2 |--> zeta4]
sage: d[0].parent()
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 4 over Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2
sage: d[1].parent()
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 5 over Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2


We can’t multiply directly, since coercion of one element into the other parent fails in both cases:

sage: d[0]*d[1] == c
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: unsupported operand parent(s) for '*': 'Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 4 over Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2' and 'Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 5 over Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2'


We can multiply if we’re explicit about where we want the multiplication to take place.

sage: G(d[0])*G(d[1]) == c
True


Conductors that are divisible by various powers of 2 present some problems as the multiplicative group modulo $$2^k$$ is trivial for $$k = 1$$ and non-cyclic for $$k \ge 3$$:

sage: (DirichletGroup(18).0).decomposition()
[Dirichlet character modulo 2 of conductor 1, Dirichlet character modulo 9 of conductor 9 mapping 2 |--> zeta6]
sage: (DirichletGroup(36).0).decomposition()
[Dirichlet character modulo 4 of conductor 4 mapping 3 |--> -1, Dirichlet character modulo 9 of conductor 1 mapping 2 |--> 1]
sage: (DirichletGroup(72).0).decomposition()
[Dirichlet character modulo 8 of conductor 4 mapping 7 |--> -1, 5 |--> 1, Dirichlet character modulo 9 of conductor 1 mapping 2 |--> 1]

element()

Return the underlying $$\ZZ/n\ZZ$$-module vector of exponents.

Warning

Please do not change the entries of the returned vector; this vector is mutable only because immutable vectors are implemented yet.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G.<a,b> = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: a.element()
(2, 0)
sage: b.element()
(0, 1)

extend(M)

Returns the extension of this character to a Dirichlet character modulo the multiple M of the modulus.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G.<a,b> = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: H.<c> = DirichletGroup(4)
sage: c.extend(20)
Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 4 mapping 11 |--> -1, 17 |--> 1
sage: a
Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 4 mapping 11 |--> -1, 17 |--> 1
sage: c.extend(20) == a
True

galois_orbit(sort=True)

Return the orbit of this character under the action of the absolute Galois group of the prime subfield of the base ring.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(30); e = G.1
sage: e.galois_orbit()
[Dirichlet character modulo 30 of conductor 5 mapping 11 |--> 1, 7 |--> zeta4, Dirichlet character modulo 30 of conductor 5 mapping 11 |--> 1, 7 |--> -zeta4]


Another example:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(13)
sage: G.galois_orbits()
[
[Dirichlet character modulo 13 of conductor 1 mapping 2 |--> 1], ... [Dirichlet character modulo 13 of conductor 13 mapping 2 |--> -1]
]
sage: e = G.0
sage: e
Dirichlet character modulo 13 of conductor 13 mapping 2 |--> zeta12
sage: e.galois_orbit()
[Dirichlet character modulo 13 of conductor 13 mapping 2 |--> zeta12, Dirichlet character modulo 13 of conductor 13 mapping 2 |--> zeta12^3 - zeta12, Dirichlet character modulo 13 of conductor 13 mapping 2 |--> -zeta12, Dirichlet character modulo 13 of conductor 13 mapping 2 |--> -zeta12^3 + zeta12]
sage: e = G.0^2; e
Dirichlet character modulo 13 of conductor 13 mapping 2 |--> zeta12^2
sage: e.galois_orbit()
[Dirichlet character modulo 13 of conductor 13 mapping 2 |--> zeta12^2, Dirichlet character modulo 13 of conductor 13 mapping 2 |--> -zeta12^2 + 1]


A non-example:

sage: chi = DirichletGroup(7, Integers(9), zeta = Integers(9)(2)).0
sage: chi.galois_orbit()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Galois orbits only defined if base ring is an integral domain

gauss_sum(a=1)

Return a Gauss sum associated to this Dirichlet character.

The Gauss sum associated to $$\chi$$ is

$g_a(\chi) = \sum_{r \in \ZZ/m\ZZ} \chi(r)\,\zeta^{ar},$

where $$m$$ is the modulus of $$\chi$$ and $$\zeta$$ is a primitive $$m^{th}$$ root of unity, i.e., $$\zeta$$ is self.parent().zeta().

FACTS: If the modulus is a prime $$p$$ and the character is nontrivial, then the Gauss sum has absolute value $$\sqrt{p}$$.

CACHING: Computed Gauss sums are not cached with this character.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(3)
sage: e = G([-1])
sage: e.gauss_sum(1)
2*zeta6 - 1
sage: e.gauss_sum(2)
-2*zeta6 + 1
sage: norm(e.gauss_sum())
3

sage: G = DirichletGroup(13)
sage: e = G.0
sage: e.gauss_sum()
-zeta156^46 + zeta156^45 + zeta156^42 + zeta156^41 + 2*zeta156^40 + zeta156^37 - zeta156^36 - zeta156^34 - zeta156^33 - zeta156^31 + 2*zeta156^30 + zeta156^28 - zeta156^24 - zeta156^22 + zeta156^21 + zeta156^20 - zeta156^19 + zeta156^18 - zeta156^16 - zeta156^15 - 2*zeta156^14 - zeta156^10 + zeta156^8 + zeta156^7 + zeta156^6 + zeta156^5 - zeta156^4 - zeta156^2 - 1
sage: factor(norm(e.gauss_sum()))
13^24

gauss_sum_numerical(prec=53, a=1)

Return a Gauss sum associated to this Dirichlet character as an approximate complex number with prec bits of precision.

INPUT:

• prec - integer (default: 53), bits of precision
• a - integer, as for gauss_sum.

The Gauss sum associated to $$\chi$$ is

$g_a(\chi) = \sum_{r \in \ZZ/m\ZZ} \chi(r)\,\zeta^{ar},$

where $$m$$ is the modulus of $$\chi$$ and $$\zeta$$ is a primitive $$m^{th}$$ root of unity, i.e., $$\zeta$$ is self.parent().zeta().

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(3)
sage: e = G.0
sage: abs(e.gauss_sum_numerical())
1.7320508075...
sage: sqrt(3.0)
1.73205080756888
sage: e.gauss_sum_numerical(a=2)
-...e-15 - 1.7320508075...*I
sage: e.gauss_sum_numerical(a=2, prec=100)
4.7331654313260708324703713917e-30 - 1.7320508075688772935274463415*I
sage: G = DirichletGroup(13)
sage: H = DirichletGroup(13, CC)
sage: e = G.0
sage: f = H.0
sage: e.gauss_sum_numerical()
-3.07497205... + 1.8826966926...*I
sage: f.gauss_sum_numerical()
-3.07497205... + 1.8826966926...*I
sage: abs(e.gauss_sum_numerical())
3.60555127546...
sage: abs(f.gauss_sum_numerical())
3.60555127546...
sage: sqrt(13.0)
3.60555127546399

is_even()

Return True if and only if $$\varepsilon(-1) = 1$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(13)
sage: e = G.0
sage: e.is_even()
False
sage: e(-1)
-1
sage: [e.is_even() for e in G]
[True, False, True, False, True, False, True, False, True, False, True, False]

sage: G = DirichletGroup(13, CC)
sage: e = G.0
sage: e.is_even()
False
sage: e(-1)
-1.000000...
sage: [e.is_even() for e in G]
[True, False, True, False, True, False, True, False, True, False, True, False]

sage: G = DirichletGroup(100000, CC)
sage: G.1.is_even()
True


Note that is_even need not be the negation of is_odd, e.g., in characteristic 2:

sage: G.<e> = DirichletGroup(13, GF(4,'a'))
sage: e.is_even()
True
sage: e.is_odd()
True

is_odd()

Return True if and only if $$\varepsilon(-1) = -1$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(13)
sage: e = G.0
sage: e.is_odd()
True
sage: [e.is_odd() for e in G]
[False, True, False, True, False, True, False, True, False, True, False, True]

sage: G = DirichletGroup(13)
sage: e = G.0
sage: e.is_odd()
True
sage: [e.is_odd() for e in G]
[False, True, False, True, False, True, False, True, False, True, False, True]

sage: G = DirichletGroup(100000, CC)
sage: G.0.is_odd()
True


Note that is_even need not be the negation of is_odd, e.g., in characteristic 2:

sage: G.<e> = DirichletGroup(13, GF(4,'a'))
sage: e.is_even()
True
sage: e.is_odd()
True

is_primitive()

Return True if and only if this character is primitive, i.e., its conductor equals its modulus.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G.<a,b> = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: a.is_primitive()
False
sage: b.is_primitive()
False
sage: (a*b).is_primitive()
True
sage: G.<a,b> = DirichletGroup(20, CC)
sage: a.is_primitive()
False
sage: b.is_primitive()
False
sage: (a*b).is_primitive()
True

is_trivial()

Returns True if this is the trivial character, i.e., has order 1.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G.<a,b> = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: a.is_trivial()
False
sage: (a^2).is_trivial()
True

jacobi_sum(char, check=True)

Return the Jacobi sum associated to these Dirichlet characters (i.e., J(self,char)). This is defined as

$J(\chi, \psi) = \sum_{a \in \ZZ / N\ZZ} \chi(a) \psi(1-a)$

where $$\chi$$ and $$\psi$$ are both characters modulo $$N$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: D = DirichletGroup(13)
sage: e = D.0
sage: f = D[-2]
sage: e.jacobi_sum(f)
3*zeta12^2 + 2*zeta12 - 3
sage: f.jacobi_sum(e)
3*zeta12^2 + 2*zeta12 - 3
sage: p = 7
sage: DP = DirichletGroup(p)
sage: f = DP.0
sage: e.jacobi_sum(f)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError: Characters must be from the same Dirichlet Group.

sage: all_jacobi_sums = [(DP[i].values_on_gens(),DP[j].values_on_gens(),DP[i].jacobi_sum(DP[j]))             ...                       for i in range(p-1) for j in range(p-1)[i:]]
...
sage: for s in all_jacobi_sums:
...       print s
((1,), (1,), 5)
((1,), (zeta6,), -1)
((1,), (zeta6 - 1,), -1)
((1,), (-1,), -1)
((1,), (-zeta6,), -1)
((1,), (-zeta6 + 1,), -1)
((zeta6,), (zeta6,), -zeta6 + 3)
((zeta6,), (zeta6 - 1,), 2*zeta6 + 1)
((zeta6,), (-1,), -2*zeta6 - 1)
((zeta6,), (-zeta6,), zeta6 - 3)
((zeta6,), (-zeta6 + 1,), 1)
((zeta6 - 1,), (zeta6 - 1,), -3*zeta6 + 2)
((zeta6 - 1,), (-1,), 2*zeta6 + 1)
((zeta6 - 1,), (-zeta6,), -1)
((zeta6 - 1,), (-zeta6 + 1,), -zeta6 - 2)
((-1,), (-1,), 1)
((-1,), (-zeta6,), -2*zeta6 + 3)
((-1,), (-zeta6 + 1,), 2*zeta6 - 3)
((-zeta6,), (-zeta6,), 3*zeta6 - 1)
((-zeta6,), (-zeta6 + 1,), -2*zeta6 + 3)
((-zeta6 + 1,), (-zeta6 + 1,), zeta6 + 2)


Let’s check that trivial sums are being calculated correctly:

sage: N = 13
sage: D = DirichletGroup(N)
sage: g = D(1)
sage: g.jacobi_sum(g)
11
sage: sum([g(x)*g(1-x) for x in IntegerModRing(N)])
11


And sums where exactly one character is nontrivial (see trac #6393):

sage: G=DirichletGroup(5); X=G.list(); Y=X[0]; Z=X[1]
sage: Y.jacobi_sum(Z)
-1
sage: Z.jacobi_sum(Y)
-1


Now let’s take a look at a non-prime modulus:

sage: N = 9
sage: D = DirichletGroup(N)
sage: g = D(1)
sage: g.jacobi_sum(g)
3


We consider a sum with values in a finite field:

sage: g = DirichletGroup(17, GF(9,'a')).0
sage: g.jacobi_sum(g**2)
2*a


TESTS:

This shows that ticket #6393 has been fixed:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(5); X = G.list(); Y = X[0]; Z = X[1]
sage: # Y is trivial and Z is quartic
sage: sum([Y(x)*Z(1-x) for x in IntegerModRing(5)])
-1
sage: # The value -1 above is the correct value of the Jacobi sum J(Y, Z).
sage: Y.jacobi_sum(Z); Z.jacobi_sum(Y)
-1
-1

kernel()

Return the kernel of this character.

OUTPUT: Currently the kernel is returned as a list. This may change.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G.<a,b> = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: a.kernel()
[1, 9, 13, 17]
sage: b.kernel()
[1, 11]

kloosterman_sum(a=1, b=0)

Return the “twisted” Kloosterman sum associated to this Dirichlet character. This includes Gauss sums, classical Kloosterman sums, Salie sums, etc.

The Kloosterman sum associated to $$\chi$$ and the integers a,b is

$K(a,b,\chi) = \sum_{r \in (\ZZ/m\ZZ)^\times} \chi(r)\,\zeta^{ar+br^{-1}},$

where $$m$$ is the modulus of $$\chi$$ and $$\zeta$$ is a primitive $$m$$ th root of unity. This reduces to to the Gauss sum if $$b=0$$.

This method performs an exact calculation and returns an element of a suitable cyclotomic field; see also kloosterman_sum_numerical(), which gives an inexact answer (but is generally much quicker).

CACHING: Computed Kloosterman sums are not cached with this character.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(3)
sage: e = G([-1])
sage: e.kloosterman_sum(3,5)
-2*zeta6 + 1
sage: G = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: e = G([1 for  u in G.unit_gens()])
sage: e.kloosterman_sum(7,17)
-2*zeta20^6 + 2*zeta20^4 + 4

kloosterman_sum_numerical(prec=53, a=1, b=0)

Return the Kloosterman sum associated to this Dirichlet character as an approximate complex number with prec bits of precision. See also kloosterman_sum(), which calculates the sum exactly (which is generally slower).

INPUT:

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(3)
sage: e = G.0


The real component of the numerical value of e is near zero:

sage: v=e.kloosterman_sum_numerical()
sage: v.real() < 1.0e15
True
sage: v.imag()
1.73205080756888
sage: G = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: e = G.1
sage: e.kloosterman_sum_numerical(53,3,11)
3.80422606518061 - 3.80422606518061*I

level()

Synonym for modulus.

EXAMPLE:

sage: e = DirichletGroup(100, QQ).0
sage: e.level()
100

maximize_base_ring()

Let

$\varepsilon : (\ZZ/N\ZZ)^* \to \QQ(\zeta_n)$

be a Dirichlet character. This function returns an equal Dirichlet character

$\chi : (\ZZ/N\ZZ)^* \to \QQ(\zeta_m)$

where $$m$$ is the least common multiple of $$n$$ and the exponent of $$(\ZZ/N\ZZ)^*$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G.<a,b> = DirichletGroup(20,QQ)
sage: b.maximize_base_ring()
Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 5 mapping 11 |--> 1, 17 |--> -1
sage: b.maximize_base_ring().base_ring()
Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2
sage: DirichletGroup(20).base_ring()
Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2

minimize_base_ring()

Return a Dirichlet character that equals this one, but over as small a subfield (or subring) of the base ring as possible.

Note

This function is currently only implemented when the base ring is a number field. It’s the identity function in characteristic p.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(13)
sage: e = DirichletGroup(13).0
sage: e.base_ring()
Cyclotomic Field of order 12 and degree 4
sage: e.minimize_base_ring().base_ring()
Cyclotomic Field of order 12 and degree 4
sage: (e^2).minimize_base_ring().base_ring()
Cyclotomic Field of order 6 and degree 2
sage: (e^3).minimize_base_ring().base_ring()
Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2
sage: (e^12).minimize_base_ring().base_ring()
Rational Field

modulus()

The modulus of this character.

EXAMPLES:

sage: e = DirichletGroup(100, QQ).0
sage: e.modulus()
100
sage: e.conductor()
4

multiplicative_order()

The order of this character.

EXAMPLES:

sage: e = DirichletGroup(100).1
sage: e.order()    # same as multiplicative_order, since group is multiplicative
20
sage: e.multiplicative_order()
20
sage: e = DirichletGroup(100).0
sage: e.multiplicative_order()
2

primitive_character()

Returns the primitive character associated to self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: e = DirichletGroup(100).0; e
Dirichlet character modulo 100 of conductor 4 mapping 51 |--> -1, 77 |--> 1
sage: e.conductor()
4
sage: f = e.primitive_character(); f
Dirichlet character modulo 4 of conductor 4 mapping 3 |--> -1
sage: f.modulus()
4

restrict(M)

Returns the restriction of this character to a Dirichlet character modulo the divisor M of the modulus, which must also be a multiple of the conductor of this character.

EXAMPLES:

sage: e = DirichletGroup(100).0
sage: e.modulus()
100
sage: e.conductor()
4
sage: e.restrict(20)
Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 4 mapping 11 |--> -1, 17 |--> 1
sage: e.restrict(4)
Dirichlet character modulo 4 of conductor 4 mapping 3 |--> -1
sage: e.restrict(50)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: conductor(=4) must divide M(=50)

values()

Returns a list of the values of this character on each integer between 0 and the modulus.

EXAMPLES:

sage: e = DirichletGroup(20)(1)
sage: e.values()
[0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1]
sage: e = DirichletGroup(20).gen(0)
sage: print e.values()
[0, 1, 0, -1, 0, 0, 0, -1, 0, 1, 0, -1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, -1]
sage: e = DirichletGroup(20).gen(1)
sage: e.values()
[0, 1, 0, -zeta4, 0, 0, 0, zeta4, 0, -1, 0, 1, 0, -zeta4, 0, 0, 0, zeta4, 0, -1]
sage: e = DirichletGroup(21).gen(0) ; e.values()
[0, 1, -1, 0, 1, -1, 0, 0, -1, 0, 1, -1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, -1, 0, 1, -1]
sage: e = DirichletGroup(21, base_ring=GF(37)).gen(0) ; e.values()
[0, 1, 36, 0, 1, 36, 0, 0, 36, 0, 1, 36, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 36, 0, 1, 36]
sage: e = DirichletGroup(21, base_ring=GF(3)).gen(0) ; e.values()
[0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 2, 0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 1, 2]

sage: chi = DirichletGroup(100151, CyclotomicField(10)).0
sage: ls = chi.values() ; ls[0:10]
[0,
1,
-zeta10^3,
-zeta10,
-zeta10,
1,
zeta10^3 - zeta10^2 + zeta10 - 1,
zeta10,
zeta10^3 - zeta10^2 + zeta10 - 1,
zeta10^2]


TESTS:

Test that trac ticket #11783 and trac ticket #14368 are fixed:

sage: chi = DirichletGroup(1).list()[0]
sage: chi.values()
[1]
sage: chi(1)
1

values_on_gens()

Returns a tuple of the values of this character on each of the minimal generators of $$(\ZZ/N\ZZ)^*$$, where $$N$$ is the modulus.

EXAMPLES:

sage: e = DirichletGroup(16)([-1, 1])
sage: e.values_on_gens ()
(-1, 1)

class sage.modular.dirichlet.DirichletGroupFactory

The group of Dirichlet characters modulo $$N$$ with values in the subgroup $$\langle \zeta_n\rangle$$ of the multiplicative group of the base_ring. If base_ring is omitted then we use $$\QQ(\zeta_n)$$, where $$n$$ is the exponent of $$(\ZZ/N\ZZ)^*$$. If $$\zeta$$ is omitted then we compute and use a maximal-order zeta in base_ring, if possible.

INPUT:

• N - an integer
• base_ring - a ring (optional), where characters take their values (should be an integral domain)
• zeta - an element (optional), a root of unity in base_ring
• zeta_order - an integer (optional), the order of zeta
• names - ignored (needed so G.... = DirichletGroup(...) notation works)
• integral - a boolean (default: False). If True, return the group with base_ring the ring of integers in the smallest choice of sage.rings.number_field.number_field.CyclotomicField(). Ignored if base_ring is not None.

OUTPUT:

a group of Dirichlet characters

EXAMPLES:

The default base ring is a cyclotomic field of order the exponent of $$(\ZZ/N\ZZ)^*$$:

sage: DirichletGroup(20)
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 20 over Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2


We create the group of Dirichlet character mod 20 with values in the rational numbers:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(20, QQ); G
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 20 over Rational Field
sage: G.order()
4
sage: G.base_ring()
Rational Field


The elements of G print as lists giving the values of the character on the generators of $$(Z/NZ)^*$$:

sage: list(G)
[Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 1 mapping 11 |--> 1, 17 |--> 1, Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 4 mapping 11 |--> -1, 17 |--> 1, Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 5 mapping 11 |--> 1, 17 |--> -1, Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 20 mapping 11 |--> -1, 17 |--> -1]


Next we construct the group of Dirichlet character mod 20, but with values in $$\QQ(\zeta_n)$$:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: G.1
Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 5 mapping 11 |--> 1, 17 |--> zeta4


We next compute several invariants of G:

sage: G.gens()
(Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 4 mapping 11 |--> -1, 17 |--> 1, Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 5 mapping 11 |--> 1, 17 |--> zeta4)
sage: G.unit_gens()
(11, 17)
sage: G.zeta()
zeta4
sage: G.zeta_order()
4


In this example we create a Dirichlet character with values in a number field. We have to give zeta, but not its order:

sage: R.<x> = PolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: K.<a> = NumberField(x^4 + 1)
sage: G = DirichletGroup(5, K, a); G
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 5 over Number Field in a with defining polynomial x^4 + 1
sage: G.list()
[Dirichlet character modulo 5 of conductor 1 mapping 2 |--> 1, Dirichlet character modulo 5 of conductor 5 mapping 2 |--> a^2, Dirichlet character modulo 5 of conductor 5 mapping 2 |--> -1, Dirichlet character modulo 5 of conductor 5 mapping 2 |--> -a^2]

sage: G.<e> = DirichletGroup(13)
True

sage: G = DirichletGroup(19, GF(5))
True


We compute a Dirichlet group over a large prime field:

sage: p = next_prime(10^40)
sage: g = DirichletGroup(19, GF(p)); g
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 19 over Finite Field of size 10000000000000000000000000000000000000121


Note that the root of unity has small order, i.e., it is not the largest order root of unity in the field:

sage: g.zeta_order()
2

sage: r4 = CyclotomicField(4).ring_of_integers()
sage: G = DirichletGroup(60, r4)
sage: G.gens()
(Dirichlet character modulo 60 of conductor 4 mapping 31 |--> -1, 41 |--> 1, 37 |--> 1, Dirichlet character modulo 60 of conductor 3 mapping 31 |--> 1, 41 |--> -1, 37 |--> 1, Dirichlet character modulo 60 of conductor 5 mapping 31 |--> 1, 41 |--> 1, 37 |--> zeta4)
sage: val = G.gens()[2].values_on_gens()[2] ; val
zeta4
sage: parent(val)
Maximal Order in Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2
sage: r4.residue_field(r4.ideal(29).factor()[0][0])(val)
17
sage: r4.residue_field(r4.ideal(29).factor()[0][0])(val) * GF(29)(3)
22
sage: r4.residue_field(r4.ideal(29).factor()[0][0])(G.gens()[2].values_on_gens()[2]) * 3
22
sage: parent(r4.residue_field(r4.ideal(29).factor()[0][0])(G.gens()[2].values_on_gens()[2]) * 3)
Residue field of Fractional ideal (-2*zeta4 + 5)

sage: DirichletGroup(60, integral=True)
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 60 over Maximal Order in Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2
sage: parent(DirichletGroup(60, integral=True).gens()[2].values_on_gens()[2])
Maximal Order in Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2


TESTS:

Dirichlet groups are cached, creating two groups with the same parameters yields the same object:

sage: DirichletGroup(60) is DirichletGroup(60)
True

create_key(N, base_ring=None, zeta=None, zeta_order=None, names=None, integral=False)

Create a key that uniquely determines a Dirichlet group.

TESTS:

sage: DirichletGroup.create_key(60)
(Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2, 60, zeta4, 4)


An example to illustrate that base_ring is a part of the key:

sage: k = DirichletGroup.create_key(2, base_ring=QQ); k
(Rational Field, 2, 1, 1)
sage: l = DirichletGroup.create_key(2, base_ring=CC); l
(Complex Field with 53 bits of precision, 2, 1.00000000000000, 1)
sage: k == l
False
sage: G = DirichletGroup.create_object(None, k); G
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 2 over Rational Field
sage: H = DirichletGroup.create_object(None, l); H
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 2 over Complex Field with 53 bits of precision
sage: G == H
False


If base_ring was not be a part of the key, the keys would compare equal and the caching would be broken:

sage: k = k[1:]; k
(2, 1, 1)
sage: l = l[1:]; l
(2, 1.00000000000000, 1)
sage: k == l
True
sage: DirichletGroup(2, base_ring=QQ) is DirichletGroup(2, base_ring=CC)
False

create_object(version, key, **extra_args)

Create the object from the key (extra arguments are ignored). This is only called if the object was not found in the cache.

TESTS:

sage: K = CyclotomicField(4)
sage: DirichletGroup.create_object(None, (K, 60, K.gen(), 4))
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 60 over Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2

class sage.modular.dirichlet.DirichletGroup_class(modulus, zeta, zeta_order)

Group of Dirichlet characters modulo $$N$$ over a given base ring $$R$$.

base_extend(R)

Returns the Dirichlet group over R obtained by extending scalars, with the same modulus and root of unity as self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(7,QQ); G
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 7 over Rational Field
sage: H = G.base_extend(CyclotomicField(6)); H
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 7 over Cyclotomic Field of order 6 and degree 2
sage: H.zeta()
-1
sage: G.base_extend(ZZ)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: No coercion map from 'Rational Field' to 'Integer Ring' is defined.

change_ring(R, zeta=None, zeta_order=None)

Returns the Dirichlet group over R with the same modulus as self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(7,QQ); G
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 7 over Rational Field
sage: G.change_ring(CyclotomicField(6))
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 7 over Cyclotomic Field of order 6 and degree 2

decomposition()

Returns the Dirichlet groups of prime power modulus corresponding to primes dividing modulus.

(Note that if the modulus is 2 mod 4, there will be a “factor” of $$(\ZZ/2\ZZ)^*$$, which is the trivial group.)

EXAMPLES:

sage: DirichletGroup(20).decomposition()
[
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 4 over Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2,
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 5 over Cyclotomic Field of order 4 and degree 2
]
sage: DirichletGroup(20,GF(5)).decomposition()
[
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 4 over Finite Field of size 5,
Group of Dirichlet characters of modulus 5 over Finite Field of size 5
]

exponent()

Return the exponent of this group.

EXAMPLES:

sage: DirichletGroup(20).exponent()
4
sage: DirichletGroup(20,GF(3)).exponent()
2
sage: DirichletGroup(20,GF(2)).exponent()
1
sage: DirichletGroup(37).exponent()
36

galois_orbits(v=None, reps_only=False, sort=True, check=True)

Return a list of the Galois orbits of Dirichlet characters in self, or in v if v is not None.

INPUT:

• v - (optional) list of elements of self
• reps_only - (optional: default False) if True only returns representatives for the orbits.
• sort - (optional: default True) whether to sort the list of orbits and the orbits themselves (slightly faster if False).
• check - (optional, default: True) whether or not to explicitly coerce each element of v into self.

The Galois group is the absolute Galois group of the prime subfield of Frac(R). If R is not a domain, an error will be raised.

EXAMPLES:

sage: DirichletGroup(20).galois_orbits()
[
[Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 1 mapping 11 |--> 1, 17 |--> 1], ... [Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 20 mapping 11 |--> -1, 17 |--> -1]
]
sage: DirichletGroup(17, Integers(6), zeta=Integers(6)(5)).galois_orbits()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Galois orbits only defined if base ring is an integral domain
sage: DirichletGroup(17, Integers(9), zeta=Integers(9)(2)).galois_orbits()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Galois orbits only defined if base ring is an integral domain

gen(n=0)

Return the n-th generator of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: G.gen(0)
Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 4 mapping 11 |--> -1, 17 |--> 1
sage: G.gen(1)
Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 5 mapping 11 |--> 1, 17 |--> zeta4
sage: G.gen(2)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
IndexError: n(=2) must be between 0 and 1

sage: G.gen(-1)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
IndexError: n(=-1) must be between 0 and 1

gens()

Returns generators of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: G.gens()
(Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 4 mapping 11 |--> -1, 17 |--> 1, Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 5 mapping 11 |--> 1, 17 |--> zeta4)

integers_mod()

Returns the group of integers $$\ZZ/N\ZZ$$ where $$N$$ is the modulus of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: G.integers_mod()
Ring of integers modulo 20

modulus()

Returns the modulus of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: G.modulus()
20

ngens()

Returns the number of generators of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: G = DirichletGroup(20)
sage: G.ngens()
2

order()

Return the number of elements of self. This is the same as len(self).

EXAMPLES:

sage: DirichletGroup(20).order()
8
sage: DirichletGroup(37).order()
36

random_element()

Return a random element of self.

The element is computed by multiplying a random power of each generator together, where the power is between 0 and the order of the generator minus 1, inclusive.

EXAMPLES:

sage: DirichletGroup(37).random_element()
Dirichlet character modulo 37 of conductor 37 mapping 2 |--> zeta36^4
sage: DirichletGroup(20).random_element()
Dirichlet character modulo 20 of conductor 4 mapping 11 |--> -1, 17 |--> 1
sage: DirichletGroup(60).random_element()
Dirichlet character modulo 60 of conductor 3 mapping 31 |--> 1, 41 |--> -1, 37 |--> 1

unit_gens()

Returns the minimal generators for the units of $$(\ZZ/N\ZZ)^*$$, where $$N$$ is the modulus of self.

EXAMPLES:

sage: DirichletGroup(37).unit_gens()
(2,)
sage: DirichletGroup(20).unit_gens()
(11, 17)
sage: DirichletGroup(60).unit_gens()
(31, 41, 37)
sage: DirichletGroup(20,QQ).unit_gens()
(11, 17)

zeta()

Returns the chosen root zeta of unity in the base ring $$R$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: DirichletGroup(37).zeta()
zeta36
sage: DirichletGroup(20).zeta()
zeta4
sage: DirichletGroup(60).zeta()
zeta4
sage: DirichletGroup(60,QQ).zeta()
-1
sage: DirichletGroup(60, GF(25,'a')).zeta()
2

zeta_order()

Returns the order of the chosen root zeta of unity in the base ring $$R$$.

EXAMPLES:

sage: DirichletGroup(20).zeta_order()
4
sage: DirichletGroup(60).zeta_order()
4
sage: DirichletGroup(60, GF(25,'a')).zeta_order()
4
sage: DirichletGroup(19).zeta_order()
18

sage.modular.dirichlet.TrivialCharacter(N, base_ring=Rational Field)

Return the trivial character of the given modulus, with values in the given base ring.

EXAMPLE:

sage: t = trivial_character(7)
sage: [t(x) for x in [0..20]]
[0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1]
sage: t(1).parent()
Rational Field
sage: trivial_character(7, Integers(3))(1).parent()
Ring of integers modulo 3

sage.modular.dirichlet.is_DirichletCharacter(x)

Return True if x is of type DirichletCharacter.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modular.dirichlet import is_DirichletCharacter
sage: is_DirichletCharacter(trivial_character(3))
True
sage: is_DirichletCharacter([1])
False

sage.modular.dirichlet.is_DirichletGroup(x)

Returns True if x is a Dirichlet group.

EXAMPLES:

sage: from sage.modular.dirichlet import is_DirichletGroup
sage: is_DirichletGroup(DirichletGroup(11))
True
sage: is_DirichletGroup(11)
False
sage: is_DirichletGroup(DirichletGroup(11).0)
False

sage.modular.dirichlet.kronecker_character(d)

Returns the quadratic Dirichlet character (d/.) of minimal conductor.

EXAMPLES:

sage: kronecker_character(97*389*997^2)
Dirichlet character modulo 37733 of conductor 37733 mapping 1557 |--> -1, 37346 |--> -1

sage: a = kronecker_character(1)
sage: b = DirichletGroup(2401,QQ)(a)    # NOTE -- over QQ!
sage: b.modulus()
2401


AUTHORS:

• Jon Hanke (2006-08-06)
sage.modular.dirichlet.kronecker_character_upside_down(d)

Returns the quadratic Dirichlet character (./d) of conductor d, for d0.

EXAMPLES:

sage: kronecker_character_upside_down(97*389*997^2)
Dirichlet character modulo 37506941597 of conductor 37733 mapping 13533432536 |--> -1, 22369178537 |--> -1, 14266017175 |--> 1


AUTHORS:

• Jon Hanke (2006-08-06)
sage.modular.dirichlet.trivial_character(N, base_ring=Rational Field)

Return the trivial character of the given modulus, with values in the given base ring.

EXAMPLE:

sage: t = trivial_character(7)
sage: [t(x) for x in [0..20]]
[0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1]
sage: t(1).parent()
Rational Field
sage: trivial_character(7, Integers(3))(1).parent()
Ring of integers modulo 3


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