An isogeny \(\varphi: E_1\to E_2\) between two elliptic curves \(E_1\) and \(E_2\) is a morphism of curves that sends the origin of \(E_1\) to the origin of \(E_2\). Such a morphism is automatically a morphism of group schemes and the kernel is a finite subgroup scheme of \(E_1\). Such a subscheme can either be given by a list of generators, which have to be torsion points, or by a polynomial in the coordinate \(x\) of the Weierstrass equation of \(E_1\).
The usual way to create and work with isogenies is illustrated with the following example:
sage: k = GF(11)
sage: E = EllipticCurve(k,[1,1])
sage: Q = E(6,5)
sage: phi = E.isogeny(Q)
sage: phi
Isogeny of degree 7 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + x + 1 over Finite Field of size 11 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 7*x + 8 over Finite Field of size 11
sage: P = E(4,5)
sage: phi(P)
(10 : 0 : 1)
sage: phi.codomain()
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 7*x + 8 over Finite Field of size 11
sage: phi.rational_maps()
((x^7 + 4*x^6 - 3*x^5 - 2*x^4 - 3*x^3 + 3*x^2 + x - 2)/(x^6 + 4*x^5 - 4*x^4 - 5*x^3 + 5*x^2), (x^9*y - 5*x^8*y - x^7*y + x^5*y - x^4*y - 5*x^3*y - 5*x^2*y - 2*x*y - 5*y)/(x^9 - 5*x^8 + 4*x^6 - 3*x^4 + 2*x^3))
The functions directly accessible from an elliptic curve E over a field are isogeny and isogeny_codomain.
The most useful functions that apply to isogenies are
Warning
Only cyclic, separable isogenies are implemented (except for [2]). Some algorithms may need the isogeny to be normalized.
AUTHORS:
Bases: sage.categories.morphism.Morphism
Class Implementing Isogenies of Elliptic Curves
This class implements cyclic, separable, normalized isogenies of elliptic curves.
Several different algorithms for computing isogenies are available. These include:
INPUT:
initialize.
in E, a monic kernel polynomial, or None. If initializing from a domain/codomain, this must be set to None.
is None, then this must be the codomain of a cyclic, separable, normalized isogeny, furthermore, degree must be the degree of the isogeny from E to codomain. If kernel is not None, then this must be isomorphic to the codomain of the cyclic normalized separable isogeny defined by kernel, in this case, the isogeny is post composed with an isomorphism so that this parameter is the codomain.
If kernel is None, then this is the degree of the isogeny from E to codomain. If kernel is not None, then this is used to determine whether or not to skip a gcd of the kernel polynomial with the two torsion polynomial of E.
minimal, in which case if E is a curve over the rationals, then the codomain is set to be the unique global minimum model.
check (default: True) checks if the input is valid to define an isogeny
EXAMPLES:
A simple example of creating an isogeny of a field of small characteristic:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(7), [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E((0,0)) ); phi
Isogeny of degree 2 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + x over Finite Field of size 7 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 3*x over Finite Field of size 7
sage: phi.degree() == 2
True
sage: phi.kernel_polynomial()
x
sage: phi.rational_maps()
((x^2 + 1)/x, (x^2*y - y)/x^2)
sage: phi == loads(dumps(phi)) # known bug
True
A more complicated example of a characteristic 2 field:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(2^4,'alpha'), [0,0,1,0,1])
sage: P = E((1,1))
sage: phi_v = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, P); phi_v
Isogeny of degree 3 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 + 1 over Finite Field in alpha of size 2^4 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 over Finite Field in alpha of size 2^4
sage: phi_ker_poly = phi_v.kernel_polynomial()
sage: phi_ker_poly
x + 1
sage: ker_poly_list = phi_ker_poly.list()
sage: phi_k = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, ker_poly_list)
sage: phi_k == phi_v
True
sage: phi_k.rational_maps()
((x^3 + x + 1)/(x^2 + 1), (x^3*y + x^2*y + x*y + x + y)/(x^3 + x^2 + x + 1))
sage: phi_v.rational_maps()
((x^3 + x + 1)/(x^2 + 1), (x^3*y + x^2*y + x*y + x + y)/(x^3 + x^2 + x + 1))
sage: phi_k.degree() == phi_v.degree()
True
sage: phi_k.degree()
3
sage: phi_k.is_separable()
True
sage: phi_v(E(0))
(0 : 1 : 0)
sage: alpha = E.base_field().gen()
sage: Q = E((0, alpha*(alpha + 1)))
sage: phi_v(Q)
(1 : alpha^2 + alpha : 1)
sage: phi_v(P) == phi_k(P)
True
sage: phi_k(P) == phi_v.codomain()(0)
True
We can create an isogeny that has kernel equal to the full 2 torsion:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(3), [0,0,0,1,1])
sage: ker_list = E.division_polynomial(2).list()
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, ker_list); phi
Isogeny of degree 4 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + x + 1 over Finite Field of size 3 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + x + 1 over Finite Field of size 3
sage: phi(E(0))
(0 : 1 : 0)
sage: phi(E((0,1)))
(1 : 0 : 1)
sage: phi(E((0,2)))
(1 : 0 : 1)
sage: phi(E((1,0)))
(0 : 1 : 0)
sage: phi.degree()
4
We can also create trivial isogenies with the trivial kernel:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(17), [11, 11, 4, 12, 10])
sage: phi_v = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E(0))
sage: phi_v.degree()
1
sage: phi_v.rational_maps()
(x, y)
sage: E == phi_v.codomain()
True
sage: P = E.random_point()
sage: phi_v(P) == P
True
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(31), [23, 1, 22, 7, 18])
sage: phi_k = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [1])
sage: phi_k
Isogeny of degree 1 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + 23*x*y + 22*y = x^3 + x^2 + 7*x + 18 over Finite Field of size 31 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + 23*x*y + 22*y = x^3 + x^2 + 7*x + 18 over Finite Field of size 31
sage: phi_k.degree()
1
sage: phi_k.rational_maps()
(x, y)
sage: phi_k.codomain() == E
True
sage: phi_k.kernel_polynomial()
1
sage: P = E.random_point(); P == phi_k(P)
True
Velu and Kohel also work in characteristic 0:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(QQ, [0,0,0,3,4])
sage: P_list = E.torsion_points()
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, P_list)
sage: phi
Isogeny of degree 2 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 3*x + 4 over Rational Field to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 - 27*x + 46 over Rational Field
sage: P = E((0,2))
sage: phi(P)
(6 : -10 : 1)
sage: phi_ker_poly = phi.kernel_polynomial()
sage: phi_ker_poly
x + 1
sage: ker_poly_list = phi_ker_poly.list()
sage: phi_k = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, ker_poly_list); phi_k
Isogeny of degree 2 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 3*x + 4 over Rational Field to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 - 27*x + 46 over Rational Field
sage: phi_k(P) == phi(P)
True
sage: phi_k == phi
True
sage: phi_k.degree()
2
sage: phi_k.is_separable()
True
A more complicated example over the rationals (of odd degree):
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: P_list = E.torsion_points()
sage: phi_v = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, P_list); phi_v
Isogeny of degree 5 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 10*x - 20 over Rational Field to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 7820*x - 263580 over Rational Field
sage: P = E((16,-61))
sage: phi_v(P)
(0 : 1 : 0)
sage: ker_poly = phi_v.kernel_polynomial(); ker_poly
x^2 - 21*x + 80
sage: ker_poly_list = ker_poly.list()
sage: phi_k = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, ker_poly_list); phi_k
Isogeny of degree 5 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 10*x - 20 over Rational Field to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 7820*x - 263580 over Rational Field
sage: phi_k == phi_v
True
sage: phi_v(P) == phi_k(P)
True
sage: phi_k.is_separable()
True
We can also do this same example over the number field defined by the irreducible two torsion polynomial of \(E\):
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: P_list = E.torsion_points()
sage: K.<alpha> = NumberField(x^3 - 2* x^2 - 40*x - 158)
sage: EK = E.change_ring(K)
sage: P_list = [EK(P) for P in P_list]
sage: phi_v = EllipticCurveIsogeny(EK, P_list); phi_v
Isogeny of degree 5 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 + (-1)*x^2 + (-10)*x + (-20) over Number Field in alpha with defining polynomial x^3 - 2*x^2 - 40*x - 158 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 + (-1)*x^2 + (-7820)*x + (-263580) over Number Field in alpha with defining polynomial x^3 - 2*x^2 - 40*x - 158
sage: P = EK((alpha/2,-1/2))
sage: phi_v(P)
(122/121*alpha^2 + 1633/242*alpha - 3920/121 : -1/2 : 1)
sage: ker_poly = phi_v.kernel_polynomial()
sage: ker_poly
x^2 - 21*x + 80
sage: ker_poly_list = ker_poly.list()
sage: phi_k = EllipticCurveIsogeny(EK, ker_poly_list)
sage: phi_k
Isogeny of degree 5 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 + (-1)*x^2 + (-10)*x + (-20) over Number Field in alpha with defining polynomial x^3 - 2*x^2 - 40*x - 158 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 + (-1)*x^2 + (-7820)*x + (-263580) over Number Field in alpha with defining polynomial x^3 - 2*x^2 - 40*x - 158
sage: phi_v == phi_k
True
sage: phi_k(P) == phi_v(P)
True
sage: phi_k == phi_v
True
sage: phi_k.degree()
5
sage: phi_v.is_separable()
True
The following example shows how to specify an isogeny from domain and codomain:
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: f = x^2 - 21*x + 80
sage: phi = E.isogeny(f)
sage: E2 = phi.codomain()
sage: phi_s = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, None, E2, 5)
sage: phi_s
Isogeny of degree 5 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 10*x - 20 over Rational Field to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 7820*x - 263580 over Rational Field
sage: phi_s == phi
True
sage: phi_s.rational_maps() == phi.rational_maps()
True
However only cyclic normalized isogenies can be constructed this way. So it won’t find the isogeny [3]:
sage: E.isogeny(None, codomain=E,degree=9)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: The two curves are not linked by a cyclic normalized isogeny of degree 9
Also the presumed isogeny between the domain and codomain must be normalized:
sage: E2.isogeny(None,codomain=E,degree=5)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: The two curves are not linked by a cyclic normalized isogeny of degree 5
sage: phi.dual()
Isogeny of degree 5 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 7820*x - 263580 over Rational Field to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 10*x - 20 over Rational Field
sage: phi.dual().is_normalized()
False
Here an example of a construction of a endomorphisms with cyclic kernel on a CM-curve:
sage: K.<i> = NumberField(x^2+1)
sage: E = EllipticCurve(K, [1,0])
sage: RK.<X> = K[]
sage: f = X^2 - 2/5*i + 1/5
sage: phi= E.isogeny(f)
sage: isom = phi.codomain().isomorphism_to(E)
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(isom)
sage: phi.codomain() == phi.domain()
True
sage: phi.rational_maps()
(((4/25*i + 3/25)*x^5 + (4/5*i - 2/5)*x^3 - x)/(x^4 + (-4/5*i + 2/5)*x^2 + (-4/25*i - 3/25)),
((11/125*i + 2/125)*x^6*y + (-23/125*i + 64/125)*x^4*y + (141/125*i + 162/125)*x^2*y + (3/25*i - 4/25)*y)/(x^6 + (-6/5*i + 3/5)*x^4 + (-12/25*i - 9/25)*x^2 + (2/125*i - 11/125)))
Domain and codomain tests (see trac ticket #12880):
sage: E = EllipticCurve(QQ, [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E(0,0))
sage: phi.domain() == E
True
sage: phi.codomain()
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 - 4*x over Rational Field
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(31), [1,0,0,1,2])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [17, 1])
sage: phi.domain()
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y = x^3 + x + 2 over Finite Field of size 31
sage: phi.codomain()
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y = x^3 + 24*x + 6 over Finite Field of size 31
Returns the degree of this isogeny.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(QQ, [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E((0,0)))
sage: phi.degree()
2
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [0,1,0,1])
sage: phi.degree()
4
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(31), [1,0,0,1,2])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [17, 1])
sage: phi.degree()
3
Computes and returns the dual isogeny of this isogeny. If \(\varphi\colon E \to E_2\) is the given isogeny, then the dual is by definition the unique isogeny \(\hat\varphi\colon E_2\to E\) such that the compositions \(\hat\varphi\circ\varphi\) and \(\varphi\circ\hat\varphi\) are the multiplication \([n]\) by the degree of \(\varphi\) on \(E\) and \(E_2\) respectively.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: f = x^2 - 21*x + 80
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: phi_hat = phi.dual()
sage: phi_hat.domain() == phi.codomain()
True
sage: phi_hat.codomain() == phi.domain()
True
sage: (X, Y) = phi.rational_maps()
sage: (Xhat, Yhat) = phi_hat.rational_maps()
sage: Xm = Xhat.subs(x=X, y=Y)
sage: Ym = Yhat.subs(x=X, y=Y)
sage: (Xm, Ym) == E.multiplication_by_m(5)
True
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(37), [0,0,0,1,8])
sage: R.<x> = GF(37)[]
sage: f = x^3 + x^2 + 28*x + 33
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: phi_hat = phi.dual()
sage: phi_hat.codomain() == phi.domain()
True
sage: phi_hat.domain() == phi.codomain()
True
sage: (X, Y) = phi.rational_maps()
sage: (Xhat, Yhat) = phi_hat.rational_maps()
sage: Xm = Xhat.subs(x=X, y=Y)
sage: Ym = Yhat.subs(x=X, y=Y)
sage: (Xm, Ym) == E.multiplication_by_m(7)
True
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(31), [0,0,0,1,8])
sage: R.<x> = GF(31)[]
sage: f = x^2 + 17*x + 29
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: phi_hat = phi.dual()
sage: phi_hat.codomain() == phi.domain()
True
sage: phi_hat.domain() == phi.codomain()
True
sage: (X, Y) = phi.rational_maps()
sage: (Xhat, Yhat) = phi_hat.rational_maps()
sage: Xm = Xhat.subs(x=X, y=Y)
sage: Ym = Yhat.subs(x=X, y=Y)
sage: (Xm, Ym) == E.multiplication_by_m(5)
True
Test (for trac ticket 7096):
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: phi = E.isogeny(E(5,5))
sage: phi.dual().dual() == phi
True
sage: k = GF(103)
sage: E = EllipticCurve(k,[11,11])
sage: phi = E.isogeny(E(4,4))
sage: phi
Isogeny of degree 5 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 11*x + 11 over Finite Field of size 103 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 25*x + 80 over Finite Field of size 103
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.weierstrass_morphism import WeierstrassIsomorphism
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(),(5,0,1,2)))
sage: phi.dual().dual() == phi
True
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(103),[1,0,0,1,-1])
sage: phi = E.isogeny(E(60,85))
sage: phi.dual()
Isogeny of degree 7 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y = x^3 + 84*x + 34 over Finite Field of size 103 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y = x^3 + x + 102 over Finite Field of size 103
Computes the formal isogeny as a power series in the variable \(t=-x/y\) on the domain curve.
INPUT:
in the formal group are carried out.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(13),[1,7])
sage: phi = E.isogeny(E(10,4))
sage: phi.formal()
t + 12*t^13 + 2*t^17 + 8*t^19 + 2*t^21 + O(t^23)
sage: E = EllipticCurve([0,1])
sage: phi = E.isogeny(E(2,3))
sage: phi.formal(prec=10)
t + 54*t^5 + 255*t^7 + 2430*t^9 + 19278*t^11 + O(t^13)
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a2')
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: phi = E.isogeny(x^2 + 101*x + 12751/5)
sage: phi.formal(prec=7)
t - 2724/5*t^5 + 209046/5*t^7 - 4767/5*t^8 + 29200946/5*t^9 + O(t^10)
Returns the post-isomorphism of this isogeny. If there has been no post-isomorphism set, this returns None.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(j=GF(31)(0))
sage: R.<x> = GF(31)[]
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, x+18)
sage: phi.get_post_isomorphism()
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.weierstrass_morphism import WeierstrassIsomorphism
sage: isom = WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(), (6,8,10,12))
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(isom)
sage: isom == phi.get_post_isomorphism()
True
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(83), [1,0,1,1,0])
sage: R.<x> = GF(83)[]; f = x+24
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: E2 = phi.codomain()
sage: phi2 = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, None, E2, 2)
sage: phi2.get_post_isomorphism()
Generic morphism:
From: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 65*x + 69 over Finite Field of size 83
To: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 77*y = x^3 + 49*x + 28 over Finite Field of size 83
Via: (u,r,s,t) = (1, 7, 42, 80)
Returns the pre-isomorphism of this isogeny. If there has been no pre-isomorphism set, this returns None.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(31), [1,1,0,1,-1])
sage: R.<x> = GF(31)[]
sage: f = x^3 + 9*x^2 + x + 30
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: phi.get_post_isomorphism()
sage: Epr = E.short_weierstrass_model()
sage: isom = Epr.isomorphism_to(E)
sage: phi.set_pre_isomorphism(isom)
sage: isom == phi.get_pre_isomorphism()
True
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(83), [1,0,1,1,0])
sage: R.<x> = GF(83)[]; f = x+24
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: E2 = phi.codomain()
sage: phi2 = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, None, E2, 2)
sage: phi2.get_pre_isomorphism()
Generic morphism:
From: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + y = x^3 + x over Finite Field of size 83
To: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 62*x + 74 over Finite Field of size 83
Via: (u,r,s,t) = (1, 76, 41, 3)
Method inherited from the morphism class. Returns True if and only if this isogeny has trivial kernel.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: f = x^2 + x - 29/5
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: phi.is_injective()
False
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, R(1))
sage: phi.is_injective()
True
sage: F = GF(7)
sage: E = EllipticCurve(j=F(0))
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [ E((0,-1)), E((0,1))])
sage: phi.is_injective()
False
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E(0))
sage: phi.is_injective()
True
Returns True if this isogeny is normalized. An isogeny \(\varphi\colon E\to E_2\) between two given Weierstrass equations is said to be normalized if the constant \(c\) is \(1\) in \(\varphi*(\omega_2) = c\cdot\omega\), where \(\omega\) and \(omega_2\) are the invariant differentials on \(E\) and \(E_2\) corresponding to the given equation.
INPUT:
the leading term of the formal series is 1. Otherwise it uses a deprecated algorithm involving the second optional argument.
check_by_pullback - (default:True) Deprecated.
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.weierstrass_morphism import WeierstrassIsomorphism
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(7), [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: R.<x> = GF(7)[]
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, x)
sage: phi.is_normalized()
True
sage: isom = WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(), (3, 0, 0, 0))
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(isom)
sage: phi.is_normalized()
False
sage: isom = WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(), (5, 0, 0, 0))
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(isom)
sage: phi.is_normalized()
True
sage: isom = WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(), (1, 1, 1, 1))
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(isom)
sage: phi.is_normalized()
True
sage: F = GF(2^5, 'alpha'); alpha = F.gen()
sage: E = EllipticCurve(F, [1,0,1,1,1])
sage: R.<x> = F[]
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, x+1)
sage: isom = WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(), (alpha, 0, 0, 0))
sage: phi.is_normalized()
True
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(isom)
sage: phi.is_normalized()
False
sage: isom = WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(), (1/alpha, 0, 0, 0))
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(isom)
sage: phi.is_normalized()
True
sage: isom = WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(), (1, 1, 1, 1))
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(isom)
sage: phi.is_normalized()
True
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: f = x^3 - x^2 - 10*x - 79/4
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: isom = WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(), (2, 0, 0, 0))
sage: phi.is_normalized()
True
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(isom)
sage: phi.is_normalized()
False
sage: isom = WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(), (1/2, 0, 0, 0))
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(isom)
sage: phi.is_normalized()
True
sage: isom = WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(), (1, 1, 1, 1))
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(isom)
sage: phi.is_normalized()
True
This function returns a bool indicating whether or not this isogeny is separable.
This function always returns True as currently this class only implements separable isogenies.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(17), [0,0,0,3,0])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E((0,0)))
sage: phi.is_separable()
True
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E.torsion_points())
sage: phi.is_separable()
True
For elliptic curve isogenies, always returns True (as a non-constant map of algebraic curves must be surjective).
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: f = x^2 + x - 29/5
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: phi.is_surjective()
True
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(7), [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E((0,0)))
sage: phi.is_surjective()
True
sage: F = GF(2^5, 'omega')
sage: E = EllipticCurve(j=F(0))
sage: R.<x> = F[]
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, x)
sage: phi.is_surjective()
True
Member function inherited from morphism class.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(j=GF(7)(0))
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [ E((0,1)), E((0,-1))])
sage: phi.is_zero()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError
Returns the kernel polynomial of this isogeny.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(QQ, [0,0,0,2,0])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E((0,0)))
sage: phi.kernel_polynomial()
x
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E.torsion_points())
sage: phi.kernel_polynomial()
x^2 - 21*x + 80
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(17), [1,-1,1,-1,1])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [1])
sage: phi.kernel_polynomial()
1
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(31), [0,0,0,3,0])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [0,3,0,1])
sage: phi.kernel_polynomial()
x^3 + 3*x
Numerical Approximation inherited from Map (through morphism), nonsensical for isogenies.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(j=GF(7)(0))
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [ E((0,1)), E((0,-1))])
sage: phi.n()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError: Numerical approximations do not make sense for Elliptic Curve Isogenies
Member function inherited from morphism class.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(j=GF(7)(0))
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [ E((0,1)), E((0,-1))])
sage: phi.post_compose(phi)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError
Member function inherited from morphism class.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(j=GF(7)(0))
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [ E((0,1)), E((0,-1))])
sage: phi.pre_compose(phi)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError
This function returns this isogeny as a pair of rational maps.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(QQ, [0,2,0,1,-1])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [1])
sage: phi.rational_maps()
(x, y)
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(17), [0,0,0,3,0])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E((0,0)))
sage: phi.rational_maps()
((x^2 + 3)/x, (x^2*y - 3*y)/x^2)
Modifies this isogeny object to post compose with the given Weierstrass isomorphism.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(j=GF(31)(0))
sage: R.<x> = GF(31)[]
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, x+18)
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.weierstrass_morphism import WeierstrassIsomorphism
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(), (6,8,10,12)))
sage: phi
Isogeny of degree 3 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 1 over Finite Field of size 31 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + 24*x*y + 7*y = x^3 + 22*x^2 + 16*x + 20 over Finite Field of size 31
sage: E = EllipticCurve(j=GF(47)(0))
sage: f = E.torsion_polynomial(3)/3
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: E2 = phi.codomain()
sage: post_isom = E2.isomorphism_to(E)
sage: phi.set_post_isomorphism(post_isom)
sage: phi.rational_maps() == E.multiplication_by_m(3)
False
sage: phi.switch_sign()
sage: phi.rational_maps() == E.multiplication_by_m(3)
True
Example over a number field:
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: K.<a> = NumberField(x^2 + 2)
sage: E = EllipticCurve(j=K(1728))
sage: ker_list = E.torsion_points()
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, ker_list)
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.weierstrass_morphism import WeierstrassIsomorphism
sage: post_isom = WeierstrassIsomorphism(phi.codomain(), (a,2,3,5))
sage: phi
Isogeny of degree 4 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + x over Number Field in a with defining polynomial x^2 + 2 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + (-44)*x + 112 over Number Field in a with defining polynomial x^2 + 2
Modifies this isogeny object to pre compose with the given Weierstrass isomorphism.
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(31), [1,1,0,1,-1])
sage: R.<x> = GF(31)[]
sage: f = x^3 + 9*x^2 + x + 30
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: Epr = E.short_weierstrass_model()
sage: isom = Epr.isomorphism_to(E)
sage: phi.set_pre_isomorphism(isom)
sage: phi.rational_maps()
((-6*x^4 - 3*x^3 + 12*x^2 + 10*x - 1)/(x^3 + x - 12),
(3*x^7 + x^6*y - 14*x^6 - 3*x^5 + 5*x^4*y + 7*x^4 + 8*x^3*y - 8*x^3 - 5*x^2*y + 5*x^2 - 14*x*y + 14*x - 6*y - 6)/(x^6 + 2*x^4 + 7*x^3 + x^2 + 7*x - 11))
sage: phi(Epr((0,22)))
(13 : 21 : 1)
sage: phi(Epr((3,7)))
(14 : 17 : 1)
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(29), [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: R.<x> = GF(29)[]
sage: f = x^2 + 5
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: phi
Isogeny of degree 5 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + x over Finite Field of size 29 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 20*x over Finite Field of size 29
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.weierstrass_morphism import WeierstrassIsomorphism
sage: inv_isom = WeierstrassIsomorphism(E, (1,-2,5,10))
sage: Epr = inv_isom.codomain().codomain()
sage: isom = Epr.isomorphism_to(E)
sage: phi.set_pre_isomorphism(isom); phi
Isogeny of degree 5 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + 10*x*y + 20*y = x^3 + 27*x^2 + 6 over Finite Field of size 29 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 20*x over Finite Field of size 29
sage: phi(Epr((12,1)))
(26 : 0 : 1)
sage: phi(Epr((2,9)))
(0 : 0 : 1)
sage: phi(Epr((21,12)))
(3 : 0 : 1)
sage: phi.rational_maps()[0]
(x^5 - 10*x^4 - 6*x^3 - 7*x^2 - x + 3)/(x^4 - 8*x^3 + 5*x^2 - 14*x - 6)
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: f = x^2 - 21*x + 80
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f); phi
Isogeny of degree 5 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 10*x - 20 over Rational Field to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 7820*x - 263580 over Rational Field
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.weierstrass_morphism import WeierstrassIsomorphism
sage: Epr = E.short_weierstrass_model()
sage: isom = Epr.isomorphism_to(E)
sage: phi.set_pre_isomorphism(isom)
sage: phi
Isogeny of degree 5 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 - 13392*x - 1080432 over Rational Field to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 7820*x - 263580 over Rational Field
sage: phi(Epr((168,1188)))
(0 : 1 : 0)
This function composes the isogeny with \([-1]\) (flipping the coefficient between +/-1 on the \(y\) coordinate rational map).
EXAMPLES:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(23), [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: f = E.torsion_polynomial(3)/3
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f, E)
sage: phi.rational_maps() == E.multiplication_by_m(3)
False
sage: phi.switch_sign()
sage: phi.rational_maps() == E.multiplication_by_m(3)
True
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(17), [-2, 3, -5, 7, -11])
sage: R.<x> = GF(17)[]
sage: f = x+6
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: phi
Isogeny of degree 2 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + 15*x*y + 12*y = x^3 + 3*x^2 + 7*x + 6 over Finite Field of size 17 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + 15*x*y + 12*y = x^3 + 3*x^2 + 4*x + 8 over Finite Field of size 17
sage: phi.rational_maps()
((x^2 + 6*x + 4)/(x + 6), (x^2*y - 5*x*y + 8*x - 2*y)/(x^2 - 5*x + 2))
sage: phi.switch_sign()
sage: phi
Isogeny of degree 2 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + 15*x*y + 12*y = x^3 + 3*x^2 + 7*x + 6 over Finite Field of size 17 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + 15*x*y + 12*y = x^3 + 3*x^2 + 4*x + 8 over Finite Field of size 17
sage: phi.rational_maps()
((x^2 + 6*x + 4)/(x + 6),
(2*x^3 - x^2*y - 5*x^2 + 5*x*y - 4*x + 2*y + 7)/(x^2 - 5*x + 2))
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: f = x^2 - 21*x + 80
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: (xmap1, ymap1) = phi.rational_maps()
sage: phi.switch_sign()
sage: (xmap2, ymap2) = phi.rational_maps()
sage: xmap1 == xmap2
True
sage: ymap1 == -ymap2 - E.a1()*xmap2 - E.a3()
True
sage: K.<a> = NumberField(x^2 + 1)
sage: E = EllipticCurve(K, [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: R.<x> = K[]
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, x-a)
sage: phi.rational_maps()
((x^2 + (-a)*x - 2)/(x + (-a)), (x^2*y + (-2*a)*x*y + y)/(x^2 + (-2*a)*x - 1))
sage: phi.switch_sign()
sage: phi.rational_maps()
((x^2 + (-a)*x - 2)/(x + (-a)), (-x^2*y + (2*a)*x*y - y)/(x^2 + (-2*a)*x - 1))
Given parameters \(v\) and \(w\) (as in Velu / Kohel / etc formulas) computes the codomain curve.
EXAMPLES:
This formula is used by every Isogeny Instantiation:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(19), [1,2,3,4,5])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E((1,2)) )
sage: phi.codomain()
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 3*y = x^3 + 2*x^2 + 9*x + 13 over Finite Field of size 19
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import compute_codomain_formula
sage: v = phi._EllipticCurveIsogeny__v
sage: w = phi._EllipticCurveIsogeny__w
sage: compute_codomain_formula(E, v, w)
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 3*y = x^3 + 2*x^2 + 9*x + 13 over Finite Field of size 19
This function computes the codomain from the kernel polynomial as per Kohel’s formulas.
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import compute_codomain_kohel
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(19), [1,2,3,4,5])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [9,1])
sage: phi.codomain() == isogeny_codomain_from_kernel(E, [9,1])
True
sage: compute_codomain_kohel(E, [9,1], 2)
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 3*y = x^3 + 2*x^2 + 9*x + 8 over Finite Field of size 19
sage: R.<x> = GF(19)[]
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(19), [18,17,16,15,14])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, x^3 + 14*x^2 + 3*x + 11)
sage: phi.codomain() == isogeny_codomain_from_kernel(E, x^3 + 14*x^2 + 3*x + 11)
True
sage: compute_codomain_kohel(E, x^3 + 14*x^2 + 3*x + 11, 7)
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + 18*x*y + 16*y = x^3 + 17*x^2 + 18*x + 18 over Finite Field of size 19
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(19), [1,2,3,4,5])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, x^3 + 7*x^2 + 15*x + 12)
sage: isogeny_codomain_from_kernel(E, x^3 + 7*x^2 + 15*x + 12) == phi.codomain()
True
sage: compute_codomain_kohel(E, x^3 + 7*x^2 + 15*x + 12,4)
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 3*y = x^3 + 2*x^2 + 3*x + 15 over Finite Field of size 19
NOTES:
This function uses the formulas of Section 2.4 of [K96].
REFERENCES:
Computes isomorphism from E1 to an intermediate domain and an isomorphism from an intermediate codomain to E2.
Intermediate domain and intermediate codomain, are in short Weierstrass form.
This is used so we can compute \(\wp\) functions from the short Weierstrass model more easily.
The underlying field must be of characteristic not equal to 2,3.
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import compute_intermediate_curves
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(83), [1,0,1,1,0])
sage: R.<x> = GF(83)[]; f = x+24
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: E2 = phi.codomain()
sage: compute_intermediate_curves(E, E2)
(Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 62*x + 74 over Finite Field of size 83,
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 65*x + 69 over Finite Field of size 83,
Generic morphism:
From: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + y = x^3 + x over Finite Field of size 83
To: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 62*x + 74 over Finite Field of size 83
Via: (u,r,s,t) = (1, 76, 41, 3),
Generic morphism:
From: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 65*x + 69 over Finite Field of size 83
To: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 77*y = x^3 + 49*x + 28 over Finite Field of size 83
Via: (u,r,s,t) = (1, 7, 42, 80))
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: K.<i> = NumberField(x^2 + 1)
sage: E = EllipticCurve(K, [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: E2 = EllipticCurve(K, [0,0,0,16,0])
sage: compute_intermediate_curves(E, E2)
(Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + x over Number Field in i with defining polynomial x^2 + 1,
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 16*x over Number Field in i with defining polynomial x^2 + 1,
Generic endomorphism of Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + x over Number Field in i with defining polynomial x^2 + 1
Via: (u,r,s,t) = (1, 0, 0, 0),
Generic endomorphism of Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 16*x over Number Field in i with defining polynomial x^2 + 1
Via: (u,r,s,t) = (1, 0, 0, 0))
Computes the kernel polynomial of the degree ell isogeny between E1 and E2. There must be a degree ell, cyclic, separable, normalized isogeny from E1 to E2.
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import compute_isogeny_kernel_polynomial
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(37), [0,0,0,1,8])
sage: R.<x> = GF(37)[]
sage: f = (x + 14) * (x + 30)
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: E2 = phi.codomain()
sage: compute_isogeny_kernel_polynomial(E, E2, 5)
x^2 + 7*x + 13
sage: f
x^2 + 7*x + 13
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: K.<i> = NumberField(x^2 + 1)
sage: E = EllipticCurve(K, [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: E2 = EllipticCurve(K, [0,0,0,16,0])
sage: compute_isogeny_kernel_polynomial(E, E2, 4)
x^3 + x
Computes the degree ell isogeny between E1 and E2 via Stark’s algorithm. There must be a degree ell, separable, normalized cyclic isogeny from E1 to E2.
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
ALGORITHM:
This function uses Starks Algorithm as presented in section 6.2 of [BMSS].
Note
As published there, the algorithm is incorrect, and a correct version (with slightly different notation) can be found in [M09]. The algorithm originates in [S72]
REFERENCES:
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import compute_isogeny_starks, compute_sequence_of_maps
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(97), [1,0,1,1,0])
sage: R.<x> = GF(97)[]; f = x^5 + 27*x^4 + 61*x^3 + 58*x^2 + 28*x + 21
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: E2 = phi.codomain()
sage: (isom1, isom2, E1pr, E2pr, ker_poly) = compute_sequence_of_maps(E, E2, 11)
sage: compute_isogeny_starks(E1pr, E2pr, 11)
x^10 + 37*x^9 + 53*x^8 + 66*x^7 + 66*x^6 + 17*x^5 + 57*x^4 + 6*x^3 + 89*x^2 + 53*x + 8
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(37), [0,0,0,1,8])
sage: R.<x> = GF(37)[]
sage: f = (x + 14) * (x + 30)
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: E2 = phi.codomain()
sage: compute_isogeny_starks(E, E2, 5)
x^4 + 14*x^3 + x^2 + 34*x + 21
sage: f**2
x^4 + 14*x^3 + x^2 + 34*x + 21
sage: E = EllipticCurve(QQ, [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]
sage: f = x
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: E2 = phi.codomain()
sage: compute_isogeny_starks(E, E2, 2)
x
Given domain E1 and codomain E2 such that there is a degree ell separable normalized isogeny from E1 to E2, returns pre/post isomorphism, as well as intermediate domain and codomain, and kernel polynomial.
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import compute_sequence_of_maps
sage: E = EllipticCurve('11a1')
sage: R.<x> = QQ[]; f = x^2 - 21*x + 80
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: E2 = phi.codomain()
sage: compute_sequence_of_maps(E, E2, 5)
(Generic morphism:
From: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 10*x - 20 over Rational Field
To: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 - 31/3*x - 2501/108 over Rational Field
Via: (u,r,s,t) = (1, 1/3, 0, -1/2),
Generic morphism:
From: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 - 23461/3*x - 28748141/108 over Rational Field
To: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + y = x^3 - x^2 - 7820*x - 263580 over Rational Field
Via: (u,r,s,t) = (1, -1/3, 0, 1/2),
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 - 31/3*x - 2501/108 over Rational Field,
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 - 23461/3*x - 28748141/108 over Rational Field,
x^2 - 61/3*x + 658/9)
sage: K.<i> = NumberField(x^2 + 1)
sage: E = EllipticCurve(K, [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: E2 = EllipticCurve(K, [0,0,0,16,0])
sage: compute_sequence_of_maps(E, E2, 4)
(Generic endomorphism of Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + x over Number Field in i with defining polynomial x^2 + 1
Via: (u,r,s,t) = (1, 0, 0, 0),
Generic endomorphism of Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 16*x over Number Field in i with defining polynomial x^2 + 1
Via: (u,r,s,t) = (1, 0, 0, 0),
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + x over Number Field in i with defining polynomial x^2 + 1,
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 16*x over Number Field in i with defining polynomial x^2 + 1,
x^3 + x)
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(97), [1,0,1,1,0])
sage: R.<x> = GF(97)[]; f = x^5 + 27*x^4 + 61*x^3 + 58*x^2 + 28*x + 21
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: E2 = phi.codomain()
sage: compute_sequence_of_maps(E, E2, 11)
(Generic morphism:
From: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + y = x^3 + x over Finite Field of size 97
To: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 52*x + 31 over Finite Field of size 97
Via: (u,r,s,t) = (1, 8, 48, 44),
Generic morphism:
From: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 41*x + 66 over Finite Field of size 97
To: Abelian group of points on Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 9*y = x^3 + 83*x + 6 over Finite Field of size 97
Via: (u,r,s,t) = (1, 89, 49, 53),
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 52*x + 31 over Finite Field of size 97,
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 = x^3 + 41*x + 66 over Finite Field of size 97,
x^5 + 67*x^4 + 13*x^3 + 35*x^2 + 77*x + 69)
The formula for computing \(v\) and \(w\) using Kohel’s formulas for isogenies of degree 2.
EXAMPLES:
This function will be implicitly called by the following example:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(19), [1,2,3,4,5])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [9,1])
sage: phi
Isogeny of degree 2 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 3*y = x^3 + 2*x^2 + 4*x + 5 over Finite Field of size 19 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 3*y = x^3 + 2*x^2 + 9*x + 8 over Finite Field of size 19
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import compute_vw_kohel_even_deg1
sage: a1,a2,a3,a4,a6 = E.ainvs()
sage: x0 = -9
sage: y0 = -(a1*x0 + a3)/2
sage: compute_vw_kohel_even_deg1(x0, y0, a1, a2, a4)
(18, 9)
The formula for computing \(v\) and \(w\) using Kohel’s formulas for isogenies of degree 3.
EXAMPLES:
This function will be implicitly called by the following example:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(19), [1,2,3,4,5])
sage: R.<x> = GF(19)[]
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, x^3 + 7*x^2 + 15*x + 12)
sage: phi
Isogeny of degree 4 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 3*y = x^3 + 2*x^2 + 4*x + 5 over Finite Field of size 19 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 3*y = x^3 + 2*x^2 + 3*x + 15 over Finite Field of size 19
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import compute_vw_kohel_even_deg3
sage: (b2,b4) = (E.b2(), E.b4())
sage: (s1, s2, s3) = (-7, 15, -12)
sage: compute_vw_kohel_even_deg3(b2, b4, s1, s2, s3)
(4, 7)
This function computes the \(v\) and \(w\) according to Kohel’s formulas.
EXAMPLES:
This function will be implicitly called by the following example:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(19), [18,17,16,15,14])
sage: R.<x> = GF(19)[]
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, x^3 + 14*x^2 + 3*x + 11)
sage: phi
Isogeny of degree 7 from Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + 18*x*y + 16*y = x^3 + 17*x^2 + 15*x + 14 over Finite Field of size 19 to Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + 18*x*y + 16*y = x^3 + 17*x^2 + 18*x + 18 over Finite Field of size 19
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import compute_vw_kohel_odd
sage: (b2,b4,b6) = (E.b2(), E.b4(), E.b6())
sage: (s1,s2,s3) = (-14,3,-11)
sage: compute_vw_kohel_odd(b2,b4,b6,s1,s2,s3,3)
(7, 1)
Returns a filled isogeny matrix giving all degrees from one giving only prime degrees.
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
(matrix) a square matrix with entries \(1\) on the diagonal, and in general the \(i\), \(j\) entry is \(d>0\) if \(d\) is the minimal degree of an isogeny from the \(i\)‘th to the \(j\)‘th curve,
EXAMPLES:
sage: M = Matrix([[0, 2, 3, 3, 0, 0], [2, 0, 0, 0, 3, 3], [3, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0], [3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2], [0, 3, 2, 0, 0, 0], [0, 3, 0, 2, 0, 0]]); M
[0 2 3 3 0 0]
[2 0 0 0 3 3]
[3 0 0 0 2 0]
[3 0 0 0 0 2]
[0 3 2 0 0 0]
[0 3 0 2 0 0]
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import fill_isogeny_matrix
sage: fill_isogeny_matrix(M)
[ 1 2 3 3 6 6]
[ 2 1 6 6 3 3]
[ 3 6 1 9 2 18]
[ 3 6 9 1 18 2]
[ 6 3 2 18 1 9]
[ 6 3 18 2 9 1]
This function computes the isogeny codomain given a kernel.
INPUT:
E - The domain elliptic curve.
kernel polynomial (specified as a either a univariate polynomial or a coefficient list.)
of the kernel.
OUTPUT:
(elliptic curve) the codomain of the separable normalized isogeny from this kernel
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import isogeny_codomain_from_kernel
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(7), [1,0,1,0,1])
sage: R.<x> = GF(7)[]
sage: isogeny_codomain_from_kernel(E, [4,1], degree=3)
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + y = x^3 + 4*x + 6 over Finite Field of size 7
sage: EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [4,1]).codomain() == isogeny_codomain_from_kernel(E, [4,1], degree=3)
True
sage: isogeny_codomain_from_kernel(E, x^3 + x^2 + 4*x + 3)
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + y = x^3 + 4*x + 6 over Finite Field of size 7
sage: isogeny_codomain_from_kernel(E, x^3 + 2*x^2 + 4*x + 3)
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + y = x^3 + 5*x + 2 over Finite Field of size 7
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(19), [1,2,3,4,5])
sage: kernel_list = [E((15,10)), E((10,3)),E((6,5))]
sage: isogeny_codomain_from_kernel(E, kernel_list)
Elliptic Curve defined by y^2 + x*y + 3*y = x^3 + 2*x^2 + 3*x + 15 over Finite Field of size 19
Helper function that allows the various isogeny functions to infer the algorithm type from the parameters passed in.
If kernel is a list of points on the EllipticCurve \(E\), then we assume the algorithm to use is Velu.
If kernel is a list of coefficients or a univariate polynomial we try to use the Kohel’s algorithms.
EXAMPLES:
This helper function will be implicitly called by the following examples:
sage: R.<x> = GF(5)[]
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(5), [0,0,0,1,0])
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, x+3)
sage: phi2 = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, [GF(5)(3),GF(5)(1)])
sage: phi == phi2
True
sage: phi3 = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, E((2,0)) )
sage: phi3 == phi2
True
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import isogeny_determine_algorithm
sage: isogeny_determine_algorithm(E, x+3, None, None, None)
'kohel'
sage: isogeny_determine_algorithm(E, [3, 1], None, None, None)
'kohel'
sage: isogeny_determine_algorithm(E, E((2,0)), None, None, None)
'velu'
Internal helper function for compute_isogeny_kernel_polynomial.
Given a full kernel polynomial (where two torsion \(x\)-coordinates are roots of multiplicity 1, and all other roots have multiplicity 2.) of degree \(\ell-1\), returns the maximum separable divisor. (i.e. the kernel polynomial with roots of multiplicity at most 1).
EXAMPLES:
The following example implicitly exercises this function:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(37), [0,0,0,1,8])
sage: R.<x> = GF(37)[]
sage: f = (x + 10) * (x + 12) * (x + 16)
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, f)
sage: E2 = phi.codomain()
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import compute_isogeny_starks
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import split_kernel_polynomial
sage: ker_poly = compute_isogeny_starks(E, E2, 7); ker_poly
x^6 + 2*x^5 + 20*x^4 + 11*x^3 + 36*x^2 + 35*x + 16
sage: split_kernel_polynomial(E, ker_poly, 7)
x^3 + x^2 + 28*x + 33
Returns the greatest common divisor of psi and the 2 torsion polynomial of \(E\).
EXAMPLES:
Every function that computes the kernel polynomial via Kohel’s formulas will call this function:
sage: E = EllipticCurve(GF(19), [1,2,3,4,5])
sage: R.<x> = GF(19)[]
sage: phi = EllipticCurveIsogeny(E, x + 13)
sage: isogeny_codomain_from_kernel(E, x + 13) == phi.codomain()
True
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import two_torsion_part
sage: two_torsion_part(E, R, x+13, 2)
x + 13
Reverses the action of fill_isogeny_matrix.
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
(matrix) a square symmetric matrix obtained from M by replacing non-prime entries with \(0\).
EXAMPLES:
sage: M = Matrix([[0, 2, 3, 3, 0, 0], [2, 0, 0, 0, 3, 3], [3, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0], [3, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2], [0, 3, 2, 0, 0, 0], [0, 3, 0, 2, 0, 0]]); M
[0 2 3 3 0 0]
[2 0 0 0 3 3]
[3 0 0 0 2 0]
[3 0 0 0 0 2]
[0 3 2 0 0 0]
[0 3 0 2 0 0]
sage: from sage.schemes.elliptic_curves.ell_curve_isogeny import fill_isogeny_matrix, unfill_isogeny_matrix
sage: M1 = fill_isogeny_matrix(M); M1
[ 1 2 3 3 6 6]
[ 2 1 6 6 3 3]
[ 3 6 1 9 2 18]
[ 3 6 9 1 18 2]
[ 6 3 2 18 1 9]
[ 6 3 18 2 9 1]
sage: unfill_isogeny_matrix(M1)
[0 2 3 3 0 0]
[2 0 0 0 3 3]
[3 0 0 0 2 0]
[3 0 0 0 0 2]
[0 3 2 0 0 0]
[0 3 0 2 0 0]
sage: unfill_isogeny_matrix(M1) == M
True