AUTHORS:
TESTS:
sage: R.<x> = PolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: I = R.ideal([4 + 3*x + x^2, 1 + x^2])
sage: S = R.quotient_ring(I);
Todo
The following skipped tests should be removed once trac ticket #13999 is fixed:
sage: TestSuite(S).run(skip=['_test_nonzero_equal', '_test_elements', '_test_zero'])
In trac ticket #11068, non-commutative quotient rings \(R/I\) were implemented. The only requirement is that the two-sided ideal \(I\) provides a reduce method so that I.reduce(x) is the normal form of an element \(x\) with respect to \(I\) (i.e., we have I.reduce(x) == I.reduce(y) if \(x-y \in I\), and x - I.reduce(x) in I). Here is a toy example:
sage: from sage.rings.noncommutative_ideals import Ideal_nc
sage: class PowerIdeal(Ideal_nc):
... def __init__(self, R, n):
... self._power = n
... self._power = n
... Ideal_nc.__init__(self,R,[R.prod(m) for m in CartesianProduct(*[R.gens()]*n)])
... def reduce(self,x):
... R = self.ring()
... return add([c*R(m) for c,m in x if len(m)<self._power],R(0))
...
sage: F.<x,y,z> = FreeAlgebra(QQ, 3)
sage: I3 = PowerIdeal(F,3); I3
Twosided Ideal (x^3, x^2*y, x^2*z, x*y*x, x*y^2, x*y*z, x*z*x, x*z*y,
x*z^2, y*x^2, y*x*y, y*x*z, y^2*x, y^3, y^2*z, y*z*x, y*z*y, y*z^2,
z*x^2, z*x*y, z*x*z, z*y*x, z*y^2, z*y*z, z^2*x, z^2*y, z^3) of
Free Algebra on 3 generators (x, y, z) over Rational Field
Free algebras have a custom quotient method that seves at creating finite dimensional quotients defined by multiplication matrices. We are bypassing it, so that we obtain the default quotient:
sage: Q3.<a,b,c> = super(sage.rings.ring.Ring,F).quotient(I3)
sage: Q3
Quotient of Free Algebra on 3 generators (x, y, z) over Rational Field by
the ideal (x^3, x^2*y, x^2*z, x*y*x, x*y^2, x*y*z, x*z*x, x*z*y, x*z^2,
y*x^2, y*x*y, y*x*z, y^2*x, y^3, y^2*z, y*z*x, y*z*y, y*z^2, z*x^2, z*x*y,
z*x*z, z*y*x, z*y^2, z*y*z, z^2*x, z^2*y, z^3)
sage: (a+b+2)^4
16 + 32*a + 32*b + 24*a^2 + 24*a*b + 24*b*a + 24*b^2
sage: Q3.is_commutative()
False
Even though \(Q_3\) is not commutative, there is commutativity for products of degree three:
sage: a*(b*c)-(b*c)*a==F.zero()
True
If we quotient out all terms of degree two then of course the resulting quotient ring is commutative:
sage: I2 = PowerIdeal(F,2); I2
Twosided Ideal (x^2, x*y, x*z, y*x, y^2, y*z, z*x, z*y, z^2) of Free Algebra
on 3 generators (x, y, z) over Rational Field
sage: Q2.<a,b,c> = super(sage.rings.ring.Ring,F).quotient(I2)
sage: Q2.is_commutative()
True
sage: (a+b+2)^4
16 + 32*a + 32*b
Since trac ticket #7797, there is an implementation of free algebras based on Singular’s implementation of the Letterplace Algebra. Our letterplace wrapper allows to provide the above toy example more easily:
sage: F.<x,y,z> = FreeAlgebra(QQ, implementation='letterplace')
sage: Q3 = F.quo(F*[F.prod(m) for m in CartesianProduct(*[F.gens()]*3)]*F)
sage: Q3
Quotient of Free Associative Unital Algebra on 3 generators (x, y, z) over Rational Field by the ideal (x*x*x, x*x*y, x*x*z, x*y*x, x*y*y, x*y*z, x*z*x, x*z*y, x*z*z, y*x*x, y*x*y, y*x*z, y*y*x, y*y*y, y*y*z, y*z*x, y*z*y, y*z*z, z*x*x, z*x*y, z*x*z, z*y*x, z*y*y, z*y*z, z*z*x, z*z*y, z*z*z)
sage: Q3.0*Q3.1-Q3.1*Q3.0
xbar*ybar - ybar*xbar
sage: Q3.0*(Q3.1*Q3.2)-(Q3.1*Q3.2)*Q3.0
0
sage: Q2 = F.quo(F*[F.prod(m) for m in CartesianProduct(*[F.gens()]*2)]*F)
sage: Q2.is_commutative()
True
Creates a quotient ring of the ring \(R\) by the twosided ideal \(I\).
Variables are labeled by names (if the quotient ring is a quotient of a polynomial ring). If names isn’t given, ‘bar’ will be appended to the variable names in \(R\).
INPUT:
OUTPUT: \(R/I\) - the quotient ring \(R\) mod the ideal \(I\)
ASSUMPTION:
I has a method I.reduce(x) returning the normal form of elements \(x\in R\). In other words, it is required that I.reduce(x)==I.reduce(y) \(\iff x-y \in I\), and x-I.reduce(x) in I, for all \(x,y\in R\).
EXAMPLES:
Some simple quotient rings with the integers:
sage: R = QuotientRing(ZZ,7*ZZ); R
Quotient of Integer Ring by the ideal (7)
sage: R.gens()
(1,)
sage: 1*R(3); 6*R(3); 7*R(3)
3
4
0
sage: S = QuotientRing(ZZ,ZZ.ideal(8)); S
Quotient of Integer Ring by the ideal (8)
sage: 2*S(4)
0
With polynomial rings (note that the variable name of the quotient ring can be specified as shown below):
sage: R.<xx> = QuotientRing(QQ[x], QQ[x].ideal(x^2 + 1)); R
Univariate Quotient Polynomial Ring in xx over Rational Field with modulus x^2 + 1
sage: R.gens(); R.gen()
(xx,)
xx
sage: for n in range(4): xx^n
1
xx
-1
-xx
sage: S = QuotientRing(QQ[x], QQ[x].ideal(x^2 - 2)); S
Univariate Quotient Polynomial Ring in xbar over Rational Field with
modulus x^2 - 2
sage: xbar = S.gen(); S.gen()
xbar
sage: for n in range(3): xbar^n
1
xbar
2
Sage coerces objects into ideals when possible:
sage: R = QuotientRing(QQ[x], x^2 + 1); R
Univariate Quotient Polynomial Ring in xbar over Rational Field with
modulus x^2 + 1
By Noether’s homomorphism theorems, the quotient of a quotient ring of \(R\) is just the quotient of \(R\) by the sum of the ideals. In this example, we end up modding out the ideal \((x)\) from the ring \(\QQ[x,y]\):
sage: R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(QQ,2)
sage: S.<a,b> = QuotientRing(R,R.ideal(1 + y^2))
sage: T.<c,d> = QuotientRing(S,S.ideal(a))
sage: T
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by the ideal (x, y^2 + 1)
sage: R.gens(); S.gens(); T.gens()
(x, y)
(a, b)
(0, d)
sage: for n in range(4): d^n
1
d
-1
-d
TESTS:
By trac ticket #11068, the following does not return a generic quotient ring but a usual quotient of the integer ring:
sage: R = Integers(8)
sage: I = R.ideal(2)
sage: R.quotient(I)
Ring of integers modulo 2
Here is an example of the quotient of a free algebra by a twosided homogeneous ideal (see trac ticket #7797):
sage: F.<x,y,z> = FreeAlgebra(QQ, implementation='letterplace')
sage: I = F*[x*y+y*z,x^2+x*y-y*x-y^2]*F
sage: Q.<a,b,c> = F.quo(I); Q
Quotient of Free Associative Unital Algebra on 3 generators (x, y, z) over Rational Field by the ideal (x*y + y*z, x*x + x*y - y*x - y*y)
sage: a*b
-b*c
sage: a^3
-b*c*a - b*c*b - b*c*c
sage: J = Q*[a^3-b^3]*Q
sage: R.<i,j,k> = Q.quo(J); R
Quotient of Free Associative Unital Algebra on 3 generators (x, y, z) over Rational Field by the ideal (-y*y*z - y*z*x - 2*y*z*z, x*y + y*z, x*x + x*y - y*x - y*y)
sage: i^3
-j*k*i - j*k*j - j*k*k
sage: j^3
-j*k*i - j*k*j - j*k*k
Check that trac ticket #5978 is fixed by if we quotient by the zero ideal \((0)\) then we just return R:
sage: R = QQ['x']
sage: R.quotient(R.zero_ideal())
Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field
sage: R.<x> = PolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: R is R.quotient(R.zero_ideal())
True
sage: I = R.ideal(0)
sage: R is R.quotient(I)
True
Bases: sage.rings.quotient_ring.QuotientRing_nc, sage.rings.ring.CommutativeRing
Creates a quotient ring of a commutative ring \(R\) by the ideal \(I\).
EXAMPLE:
sage: R.<x> = PolynomialRing(ZZ)
sage: I = R.ideal([4 + 3*x + x^2, 1 + x^2])
sage: S = R.quotient_ring(I); S
Quotient of Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Integer Ring by the ideal (x^2 + 3*x + 4, x^2 + 1)
Bases: sage.rings.ring.Ring, sage.structure.parent_gens.ParentWithGens
The quotient ring of \(R\) by a twosided ideal \(I\).
This class is for rings that do not inherit from CommutativeRing.
EXAMPLES:
Here is a quotient of a free algebra by a twosided homogeneous ideal:
sage: F.<x,y,z> = FreeAlgebra(QQ, implementation='letterplace')
sage: I = F*[x*y+y*z,x^2+x*y-y*x-y^2]*F
sage: Q.<a,b,c> = F.quo(I); Q
Quotient of Free Associative Unital Algebra on 3 generators (x, y, z) over Rational Field by the ideal (x*y + y*z, x*x + x*y - y*x - y*y)
sage: a*b
-b*c
sage: a^3
-b*c*a - b*c*b - b*c*c
A quotient of a quotient is just the quotient of the original top ring by the sum of two ideals:
sage: J = Q*[a^3-b^3]*Q
sage: R.<i,j,k> = Q.quo(J); R
Quotient of Free Associative Unital Algebra on 3 generators (x, y, z) over Rational Field by the ideal (-y*y*z - y*z*x - 2*y*z*z, x*y + y*z, x*x + x*y - y*x - y*y)
sage: i^3
-j*k*i - j*k*j - j*k*k
sage: j^3
-j*k*i - j*k*j - j*k*k
For rings that do inherit from CommutativeRing, we provide a subclass QuotientRing_generic, for backwards compatibility.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R.<x> = PolynomialRing(ZZ,'x')
sage: I = R.ideal([4 + 3*x + x^2, 1 + x^2])
sage: S = R.quotient_ring(I); S
Quotient of Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Integer Ring by the ideal (x^2 + 3*x + 4, x^2 + 1)
sage: R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: S.<a,b> = R.quo(x^2 + y^2)
sage: a^2 + b^2 == 0
True
sage: S(0) == a^2 + b^2
True
Again, a quotient of a quotient is just the quotient of the original top ring by the sum of two ideals.
sage: R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(QQ,2)
sage: S.<a,b> = R.quo(1 + y^2)
sage: T.<c,d> = S.quo(a)
sage: T
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by the ideal (x, y^2 + 1)
sage: T.gens()
(0, d)
alias of QuotientRingElement
Returns the cover ring of the quotient ring: that is, the original ring \(R\) from which we modded out an ideal, \(I\).
EXAMPLES:
sage: Q = QuotientRing(ZZ,7*ZZ)
sage: Q.cover_ring()
Integer Ring
sage: Q = QuotientRing(QQ[x], x^2 + 1)
sage: Q.cover_ring()
Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field
Return the characteristic of the quotient ring.
Todo
Not yet implemented!
EXAMPLES:
sage: Q = QuotientRing(ZZ,7*ZZ)
sage: Q.characteristic()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError
Returns the functorial construction of self.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R.<x> = PolynomialRing(ZZ,'x')
sage: I = R.ideal([4 + 3*x + x^2, 1 + x^2])
sage: R.quotient_ring(I).construction()
(QuotientFunctor, Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Integer Ring)
sage: F.<x,y,z> = FreeAlgebra(QQ, implementation='letterplace')
sage: I = F*[x*y+y*z,x^2+x*y-y*x-y^2]*F
sage: Q = F.quo(I)
sage: Q.construction()
(QuotientFunctor, Free Associative Unital Algebra on 3 generators (x, y, z) over Rational Field)
TESTS:
sage: F, R = Integers(5).construction()
sage: F(R)
Ring of integers modulo 5
sage: F, R = GF(5).construction()
sage: F(R)
Finite Field of size 5
The covering ring homomorphism \(R \to R/I\), equipped with a section.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R = ZZ.quo(3*ZZ)
sage: pi = R.cover()
sage: pi
Ring morphism:
From: Integer Ring
To: Ring of integers modulo 3
Defn: Natural quotient map
sage: pi(5)
2
sage: l = pi.lift()
sage: R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: Q = R.quo( (x^2,y^2) )
sage: pi = Q.cover()
sage: pi(x^3+y)
ybar
sage: l = pi.lift(x+y^3)
sage: l
x
sage: l = pi.lift(); l
Set-theoretic ring morphism:
From: Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by the ideal (x^2, y^2)
To: Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field
Defn: Choice of lifting map
sage: l(x+y^3)
x
Returns the cover ring of the quotient ring: that is, the original ring \(R\) from which we modded out an ideal, \(I\).
EXAMPLES:
sage: Q = QuotientRing(ZZ,7*ZZ)
sage: Q.cover_ring()
Integer Ring
sage: Q = QuotientRing(QQ[x], x^2 + 1)
sage: Q.cover_ring()
Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field
Returns the ideal generating this quotient ring.
EXAMPLES:
In the integers:
sage: Q = QuotientRing(ZZ,7*ZZ)
sage: Q.defining_ideal()
Principal ideal (7) of Integer Ring
An example involving a quotient of a quotient. By Noether’s homomorphism theorems, this is actually a quotient by a sum of two ideals:
sage: R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(QQ,2)
sage: S.<a,b> = QuotientRing(R,R.ideal(1 + y^2))
sage: T.<c,d> = QuotientRing(S,S.ideal(a))
sage: S.defining_ideal()
Ideal (y^2 + 1) of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field
sage: T.defining_ideal()
Ideal (x, y^2 + 1) of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field
Returns the \(i\)-th generator for this quotient ring.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R = QuotientRing(ZZ,7*ZZ)
sage: R.gen(0)
1
sage: R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(QQ,2)
sage: S.<a,b> = QuotientRing(R,R.ideal(1 + y^2))
sage: T.<c,d> = QuotientRing(S,S.ideal(a))
sage: T
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by the ideal (x, y^2 + 1)
sage: R.gen(0); R.gen(1)
x
y
sage: S.gen(0); S.gen(1)
a
b
sage: T.gen(0); T.gen(1)
0
d
Return the ideal of self with the given generators.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: S = R.quotient_ring(x^2+y^2)
sage: S.ideal()
Ideal (0) of Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by the ideal (x^2 + y^2)
sage: S.ideal(x+y+1)
Ideal (xbar + ybar + 1) of Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by the ideal (x^2 + y^2)
TESTS:
We create an ideal of a fairly generic integer ring (see trac ticket #5666):
sage: R = Integers(10)
sage: R.ideal(1)
Principal ideal (1) of Ring of integers modulo 10
Tell whether this quotient ring is commutative.
Note
This is certainly the case if the cover ring is commutative. Otherwise, if this ring has a finite number of generators, it is tested whether they commute. If the number of generators is infinite, a NotImplementedError is raised.
AUTHOR:
EXAMPLES:
Any quotient of a commutative ring is commutative:
sage: P.<a,b,c> = QQ[]
sage: P.quo(P.random_element()).is_commutative()
True
The non-commutative case is more interesting:
sage: F.<x,y,z> = FreeAlgebra(QQ, implementation='letterplace')
sage: I = F*[x*y+y*z,x^2+x*y-y*x-y^2]*F
sage: Q = F.quo(I)
sage: Q.is_commutative()
False
sage: Q.1*Q.2==Q.2*Q.1
False
In the next example, the generators apparently commute:
sage: J = F*[x*y-y*x,x*z-z*x,y*z-z*y,x^3-y^3]*F
sage: R = F.quo(J)
sage: R.is_commutative()
True
Returns True if the quotient ring is a field. Checks to see if the defining ideal is maximal.
TESTS:
sage: Q = QuotientRing(ZZ,7*ZZ)
sage: Q.is_field()
True
Requires the is_maximal method of the defining ideal to be implemented:
sage: R.<x, y> = ZZ[]
sage: R.quotient_ring(R.ideal([2, 4 +x])).is_field()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError
With proof equal to True (the default), this function may raise a NotImplementedError.
When proof is False, if True is returned, then self is definitely an integral domain. If the function returns False, then either self is not an integral domain or it was unable to determine whether or not self is an integral domain.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R.<x,y> = QQ[]
sage: R.quo(x^2 - y).is_integral_domain()
True
sage: R.quo(x^2 - y^2).is_integral_domain()
False
sage: R.quo(x^2 - y^2).is_integral_domain(proof=False)
False
sage: R.<a,b,c> = ZZ[]
sage: Q = R.quotient_ring([a, b])
sage: Q.is_integral_domain()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError
sage: Q.is_integral_domain(proof=False)
False
Return True if this ring is Noetherian.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R = QuotientRing(ZZ, 102*ZZ)
sage: R.is_noetherian()
True
sage: R = QuotientRing(QQ[x], x^2+1)
sage: R.is_noetherian()
True
If the cover ring of self is not Noetherian, we currently have no way of testing whether self is Noetherian, so we raise an error:
sage: R.<x> = InfinitePolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: R.is_noetherian()
False
sage: I = R.ideal([x[1]^2, x[2]])
sage: S = R.quotient(I)
sage: S.is_noetherian()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
NotImplementedError
Return the lifting map to the cover, or the image of an element under the lifting map.
Note
The category framework imposes that Q.lift(x) returns the image of an element \(x\) under the lifting map. For backwards compatibility, we let Q.lift() return the lifting map.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(QQ, 2)
sage: S = R.quotient(x^2 + y^2)
sage: S.lift()
Set-theoretic ring morphism:
From: Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by the ideal (x^2 + y^2)
To: Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field
Defn: Choice of lifting map
sage: S.lift(S.0) == x
True
Return the lifting map to the cover.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(QQ, 2)
sage: S = R.quotient(x^2 + y^2)
sage: pi = S.cover(); pi
Ring morphism:
From: Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field
To: Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by the ideal (x^2 + y^2)
Defn: Natural quotient map
sage: L = S.lifting_map(); L
Set-theoretic ring morphism:
From: Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by the ideal (x^2 + y^2)
To: Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field
Defn: Choice of lifting map
sage: L(S.0)
x
sage: L(S.1)
y
Note that some reduction may be applied so that the lift of a reduction need not equal the original element:
sage: z = pi(x^3 + 2*y^2); z
-xbar*ybar^2 + 2*ybar^2
sage: L(z)
-x*y^2 + 2*y^2
sage: L(z) == x^3 + 2*y^2
False
Test that there also is a lift for rings that are no instances of Ring (see trac ticket #11068):
sage: MS = MatrixSpace(GF(5),2,2)
sage: I = MS*[MS.0*MS.1,MS.2+MS.3]*MS
sage: Q = MS.quo(I)
sage: Q.lift()
Set-theoretic ring morphism:
From: Quotient of Full MatrixSpace of 2 by 2 dense matrices over Finite Field of size 5 by the ideal
(
[0 1]
[0 0],
[0 0]
[1 1]
)
To: Full MatrixSpace of 2 by 2 dense matrices over Finite Field of size 5
Defn: Choice of lifting map
Returns the number of generators for this quotient ring.
Todo
Note that ngens counts 0 as a generator. Does this make sense? That is, since 0 only generates itself and the fact that this is true for all rings, is there a way to “knock it off” of the generators list if a generator of some original ring is modded out?
EXAMPLES:
sage: R = QuotientRing(ZZ,7*ZZ)
sage: R.gens(); R.ngens()
(1,)
1
sage: R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(QQ,2)
sage: S.<a,b> = QuotientRing(R,R.ideal(1 + y^2))
sage: T.<c,d> = QuotientRing(S,S.ideal(a))
sage: T
Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field by the ideal (x, y^2 + 1)
sage: R.gens(); S.gens(); T.gens()
(x, y)
(a, b)
(0, d)
sage: R.ngens(); S.ngens(); T.ngens()
2
2
2
The image of an element of the cover ring under the quotient map.
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
The image of the given element in self.
EXAMPLE:
sage: R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(QQ, 2)
sage: S = R.quotient(x^2 + y^2)
sage: S.retract((x+y)^2)
2*xbar*ybar
Return the term order of this ring.
EXAMPLES:
sage: P.<a,b,c> = PolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: I = Ideal([a^2 - a, b^2 - b, c^2 - c])
sage: Q = P.quotient(I)
sage: Q.term_order()
Degree reverse lexicographic term order
Tests whether or not x inherits from QuotientRing_nc.
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.rings.quotient_ring import is_QuotientRing
sage: R.<x> = PolynomialRing(ZZ,'x')
sage: I = R.ideal([4 + 3*x + x^2, 1 + x^2])
sage: S = R.quotient_ring(I)
sage: is_QuotientRing(S)
True
sage: is_QuotientRing(R)
False
sage: F.<x,y,z> = FreeAlgebra(QQ, implementation='letterplace')
sage: I = F*[x*y+y*z,x^2+x*y-y*x-y^2]*F
sage: Q = F.quo(I)
sage: is_QuotientRing(Q)
True
sage: is_QuotientRing(F)
False