Note
You should never create the morphisms directy. Instead, use the hom() and Hom() methods that are inherited by all schemes.
If you want to extend the Sage library with some new kind of scheme, your new class (say, myscheme) should provide a method
Optionally, you can also provide a special Hom-set class for your subcategory of schemes. If you want to do this, you should also provide a method
Note that points on schemes are morphisms \(Spec(K)\to X\), too. But we typically use a different notation, so they are implemented in a different derived class. For this, you should implement a method
Optionally, you can also provide a special Hom-set for the points, for example the point Hom-set can provide a method to enumerate all points. If you want to do this, you should also provide a method
AUTHORS:
Bases: sage.structure.element.Element
Base class for scheme morphisms
INPUT:
Todo
Currently, SchemeMorphism copies code from Map rather than inheriting from it. This is to work around a bug in Cython: We want to create a common sub-class of ModuleElement and SchemeMorphism, but Cython would currently confuse cpdef attributes of the two base classes. Proper inheritance should be used as soon as this bug is fixed.
EXAMPLES:
sage: X = Spec(ZZ)
sage: Hom = X.Hom(X)
sage: from sage.schemes.generic.morphism import SchemeMorphism
sage: f = SchemeMorphism(Hom)
sage: type(f)
<class 'sage.schemes.generic.morphism.SchemeMorphism'>
TESTS:
sage: A2 = AffineSpace(QQ,2)
sage: A2.structure_morphism().domain()
Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
sage: A2.structure_morphism().category()
Category of hom sets in Category of schemes
Return the category of the Hom-set.
OUTPUT:
A category.
EXAMPLES:
sage: A2 = AffineSpace(QQ,2)
sage: A2.structure_morphism().category()
Category of hom sets in Category of schemes
Return the category which this morphism belongs to.
EXAMPLES:
sage: A2 = AffineSpace(QQ,2)
sage: A2.structure_morphism().category_for()
Category of schemes
Glue two morphism
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
Assuming that self and other are open immersions with the same domain, return scheme obtained by gluing along the images.
EXAMPLES:
We construct a scheme isomorphic to the projective line over \(\mathrm{Spec}(\QQ)\) by gluing two copies of \(\mathbb{A}^1\) minus a point:
sage: R.<x,y> = PolynomialRing(QQ, 2)
sage: S.<xbar, ybar> = R.quotient(x*y - 1)
sage: Rx = PolynomialRing(QQ, 'x')
sage: i1 = Rx.hom([xbar])
sage: Ry = PolynomialRing(QQ, 'y')
sage: i2 = Ry.hom([ybar])
sage: Sch = Schemes()
sage: f1 = Sch(i1)
sage: f2 = Sch(i2)
Now f1 and f2 have the same domain, which is a \(\mathbb{A}^1\) minus a point. We glue along the domain:
sage: P1 = f1.glue_along_domains(f2)
sage: P1
Scheme obtained by gluing X and Y along U, where
X: Spectrum of Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field
Y: Spectrum of Univariate Polynomial Ring in y over Rational Field
U: Spectrum of Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y
over Rational Field by the ideal (x*y - 1)
sage: a, b = P1.gluing_maps()
sage: a
Affine Scheme morphism:
From: Spectrum of Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y
over Rational Field by the ideal (x*y - 1)
To: Spectrum of Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field
Defn: Ring morphism:
From: Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field
To: Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over
Rational Field by the ideal (x*y - 1)
Defn: x |--> xbar
sage: b
Affine Scheme morphism:
From: Spectrum of Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y
over Rational Field by the ideal (x*y - 1)
To: Spectrum of Univariate Polynomial Ring in y over Rational Field
Defn: Ring morphism:
From: Univariate Polynomial Ring in y over Rational Field
To: Quotient of Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over
Rational Field by the ideal (x*y - 1)
Defn: y |--> ybar
Return wether the morphism is an endomorphism.
OUTPUT:
Boolean. Whether the domain and codomain are identical.
EXAMPLES:
sage: X = AffineSpace(QQ,2)
sage: X.structure_morphism().is_endomorphism()
False
sage: X.identity_morphism().is_endomorphism()
True
Bases: sage.schemes.generic.morphism.SchemeMorphism
Return the identity morphism from \(X\) to itself.
INPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: X = Spec(ZZ)
sage: X.identity_morphism() # indirect doctest
Scheme endomorphism of Spectrum of Integer Ring
Defn: Identity map
Bases: sage.schemes.generic.morphism.SchemeMorphism
Base class for rational points on schemes.
Recall that the \(K\)-rational points of a scheme \(X\) over \(k\) can be identified with the set of morphisms \(Spec(K) o X\). In Sage, the rational points are implemented by such scheme morphisms.
EXAMPLES:
sage: from sage.schemes.generic.morphism import SchemeMorphism
sage: f = SchemeMorphism(Spec(ZZ).Hom(Spec(ZZ)))
sage: type(f)
<class 'sage.schemes.generic.morphism.SchemeMorphism'>
Returns a new SchemeMorphism_point which is self coerced to R. If \(check\) is true, then the initialization checks are performed.
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: P.<x,y,z>=ProjectiveSpace(ZZ,2)
sage: X=P.subscheme(x^2-y^2)
sage: X(23,23,1).change_ring(GF(13))
(10 : 10 : 1)
sage: P.<x,y>=ProjectiveSpace(QQ,1)
sage: P(-2/3,1).change_ring(CC)
(-0.666666666666667 : 1.00000000000000)
sage: P.<x,y>=ProjectiveSpace(ZZ,1)
sage: P(152,113).change_ring(Zp(5))
(2 + 5^2 + 5^3 + O(5^20) : 3 + 2*5 + 4*5^2 + O(5^20))
Return the scheme whose point is represented.
OUTPUT:
A scheme.
EXAMPLES:
sage: A = AffineSpace(2, QQ)
sage: a = A(1,2)
sage: a.scheme()
Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
Bases: sage.schemes.generic.morphism.SchemeMorphism
A morphism of schemes determined by polynomials that define what the morphism does on points in the ambient space.
INPUT:
EXAMPLES:
An example involving the affine plane:
sage: R.<x,y> = QQ[]
sage: A2 = AffineSpace(R)
sage: H = A2.Hom(A2)
sage: f = H([x-y, x*y])
sage: f([0,1])
(-1, 0)
An example involving the projective line:
sage: R.<x,y> = QQ[]
sage: P1 = ProjectiveSpace(R)
sage: H = P1.Hom(P1)
sage: f = H([x^2+y^2,x*y])
sage: f([0,1])
(1 : 0)
Some checks are performed to make sure the given polynomials define a morphism:
sage: f = H([exp(x),exp(y)])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: polys (=[e^x, e^y]) must be elements of
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field
Return the base ring of self, that is, the ring over which the coefficients of self is given as polynomials.
OUTPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: P.<x,y>=ProjectiveSpace(QQ,1)
sage: H=Hom(P,P)
sage: f=H([3/5*x^2,6*y^2])
sage: f.base_ring()
Rational Field
sage: R.<t>=PolynomialRing(ZZ,1)
sage: P.<x,y>=ProjectiveSpace(R,1)
sage: H=Hom(P,P)
sage: f=H([3*x^2,y^2])
sage: f.base_ring()
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in t over Integer Ring
Returns a new SchemeMorphism_polynomial which is self coerced to \(R\). If check is True, then the initialization checks are performed.
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: P.<x,y>=ProjectiveSpace(ZZ,1)
sage: H=Hom(P,P)
sage: f=H([3*x^2,y^2])
sage: f.change_ring(GF(3))
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ValueError: polys (=[0, y^2]) must be of the same degree
sage: P.<x,y,z>=ProjectiveSpace(QQ,2)
sage: H=Hom(P,P)
sage: f=H([5/2*x^3 + 3*x*y^2-y^3,3*z^3 + y*x^2, x^3-z^3])
sage: f.change_ring(GF(3))
Scheme endomorphism of Projective Space of dimension 2 over Finite Field of size 3
Defn: Defined on coordinates by sending (x : y : z) to
(x^3 - y^3 : x^2*y : x^3 - z^3)
sage: P.<x,y>=ProjectiveSpace(QQ,1)
sage: X=P.subscheme([5*x^2-y^2])
sage: H=Hom(X,X)
sage: f=H([x,y])
sage: f.change_ring(GF(3))
Scheme endomorphism of Closed subscheme of Projective Space of dimension
1 over Finite Field of size 3 defined by:
-x^2 - y^2
Defn: Defined on coordinates by sending (x : y) to
(x : y)
Returns the coordinate ring of the ambient projective space the multivariable polynomial ring over the base ring
OUTPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: P.<x,y>=ProjectiveSpace(QQ,1)
sage: H=Hom(P,P)
sage: f=H([3/5*x^2,6*y^2])
sage: f.coordinate_ring()
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Rational Field
sage: R.<t>=PolynomialRing(ZZ,1)
sage: P.<x,y>=ProjectiveSpace(R,1)
sage: H=Hom(P,P)
sage: f=H([3*x^2,y^2])
sage: f.coordinate_ring()
Multivariate Polynomial Ring in x, y over Multivariate Polynomial Ring
in t over Integer Ring
Return the defining polynomials.
OUTPUT:
An immutable sequence of polynomials that defines this scheme morphism.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R.<x,y> = QQ[]
sage: A.<x,y> = AffineSpace(R)
sage: H = A.Hom(A)
sage: H([x^3+y, 1-x-y]).defining_polynomials()
[x^3 + y, -x - y + 1]
Bases: sage.schemes.generic.morphism.SchemeMorphism
Morphism of spectra of rings
INPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: R.<x> = PolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: phi = R.hom([QQ(7)]); phi
Ring morphism:
From: Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field
To: Rational Field
Defn: x |--> 7
sage: X = Spec(QQ); Y = Spec(R)
sage: f = X.hom(phi); f
Affine Scheme morphism:
From: Spectrum of Rational Field
To: Spectrum of Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field
Defn: Ring morphism:
From: Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field
To: Rational Field
Defn: x |--> 7
sage: f.ring_homomorphism()
Ring morphism:
From: Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field
To: Rational Field
Defn: x |--> 7
Return the underlying ring homomorphism.
OUTPUT:
A ring homomorphism.
EXAMPLES:
sage: R.<x> = PolynomialRing(QQ)
sage: phi = R.hom([QQ(7)])
sage: X = Spec(QQ); Y = Spec(R)
sage: f = X.hom(phi)
sage: f.ring_homomorphism()
Ring morphism:
From: Univariate Polynomial Ring in x over Rational Field
To: Rational Field
Defn: x |--> 7
Bases: sage.schemes.generic.morphism.SchemeMorphism
The structure morphism
INPUT:
EXAMPLES:
sage: Spec(ZZ).structure_morphism() # indirect doctest
Scheme morphism:
From: Spectrum of Integer Ring
To: Spectrum of Integer Ring
Defn: Structure map
Test whether f is a scheme morphism.
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
Boolean. Return True if f is a scheme morphism or a point on an elliptic curve.
EXAMPLES:
sage: A.<x,y> = AffineSpace(QQ,2); H = A.Hom(A)
sage: f = H([y,x^2+y]); f
Scheme endomorphism of Affine Space of dimension 2 over Rational Field
Defn: Defined on coordinates by sending (x, y) to
(y, x^2 + y)
sage: from sage.schemes.generic.morphism import is_SchemeMorphism
sage: is_SchemeMorphism(f)
True